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American iBciptist iMtssionarg Union. 

May, 1848. 






TROY, N, Y., MAY 16—19, 






No. 33 Somerset Street, corner of Howard Street.. 



Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting of the Board, . - - 3 

Expediency of reinforcing the Teloogoo Mission, - - • - 7 ' 

Home Expenditures of the Union, ------- 19 

Wants of the Treasury, 26 

Foreign Expenditures, --------- 31 

Reports of Committees : — Reinforcing of Teloogoo Mission 12, Finan- 
ces, and Treasurer's Report 14, Burman and Karen Missions 14, 
Bassa Mission 16, Publications 16, Indian Missions 18, Agencies 18, 
Home Expenditures 23, Wants of the Treasury 30, Foreign Ex- 
penditures 37, European Missions 38, Siam, China and Assam Mis- 
sions, 41 

Second Annual Meeting of the Union, ----- 44 

Members present, 44 

Election of Officers, --------- 49 

Election of Managers, --. 49 

Meeting of the Board of 1848-9, 51 

Election of Officers, 52 

" " Executive Committee, ------- 52 

" " Secretaries, Treasurer and Auditors, - - - - 52 

Thirty-fourth Annual Report, 54 

Financial operations, 54 

Agencies, ---_-.._.. 55 

Publications, 59 

Membership in the Union, 60 

Appointments and Removals, -------61 

Missions: — Maulmain (Burman) 62, Maulmain (Karen) 69, Tavoy 70, 
Arracan 73, Siam 74, China 76, Assam 78, Teloogoos 79, Bassas 
79, France 81, Germany 84, Greece 88, Ojibwas 89, Ottawas in 

Mich. 90, Tonawandas, &c. 90, Shawanoes, &c. 91, Cherokees 91 
Recapitulation, - - - - - - -.- - - -92 

Table of Missions, d^c, 93 

Report of the Treasurer, - 94 

Appendix: — Constitution 99, Board of Managers 101, Life Members 101 

Proposed Amendment to the Third Article of the Constitution, - 111 

QVmcrican Baptiet illissionarn llnioii. 


Troy, JY. Y., Tuesday, May 16, 1848. 

The Board of Managers of the American Baptist Missionary 
Union met in Troy, New York, on Tuesday, May 16, 1848, at 10 
o'clock, A. M., the Chairman, Hon. James H. Duncan, of Massa- 
chusetts, in the chair. 

The meeting was opened with singing, and prayer by Rev. Al- 
fred Bennett, of New York. 

The roll of the Board was called, and the following members 
were found to be in attendance, or gave their names before the 
close of the meeting. 

A. Wilson, 


J. W. Parker, 

J. N. Granger, 


S. H. Cone, 
J. L. Hodge, 
J. Smitzer, 
S. J. Drake, 


E. Hutchinson, 
E. Nelson, 
L. Porter, 
T. C. Jameson, 

D. Ives, 

E. Tdckee, 

B. T. Welch, 
P. Church, 

E. Bright, Jr., 
J. H. Kennard, 
G.I. Miles, 

J. Stevens, 
A. Bailey, 
M. Allen, 
D. D. Pratt, 
'J'. F. Caldicott, 
G. S. Webb, 

F. WaylanDj 
A. Bennett, 
J. G. Warren, 
W. R. Williams, 
L. Tucker, 

M. J. Rhees, 
A. D. Gillette, 
E. L. Magoon. 

P. W. Dean, 
A. M. Beebee, 
P. P. Runyon, 
T. Wattson, 
S. Smith, 
V. J. Bates, 
J. H. Duncan, 
A. Day, 
J. H. Smith, 

W. H. MUNN, 

T. Gilbert. 

4 Tkirty-Foiuih Annual Meeting of the Board. [May, 

The pastor of the 1st Baptist church of Troy, in whose place of 
worship the Board was assembled, extended to the Board and Union 
the welcome of the church to its house, and of the members of this 
and its sister churches to their hospitalities during the sessions. 
The Chairman of the Board in a few remarks expressed the grati- 
fication of the Board at being permitted to meet under circumstances 
so favorable. 

The Treasurer, R. E. Eddy, Esq., read his annual report, show- 
ing the expenditure dui'ing the year ending March 31, 1848, of 
^81,834 53; and the receipt, during the same period, of $86,226 36, 
exclusive of receipts from the U. S. Government and coordinate 

The report of the Auditing Committee, Messrs. Charles D. Gould 
and Joshua Loring, was read. 

The reports were laid on the table. 

The report of the Executive Committee was read by the Cor- 
responding Secretaries, Rev. E. Bright, Jr., in reference to the 
different departments of the home work, and Rev. S. Peck on the 
foreign operations of the Board. 

The times of meeting were fixed as follows: — at 9 A. M. and at 2 
and Ih P. M.; and of adjournment at 12 M. and 5 P. M. 

Rev. Messrs. E. Bright, Jr., S. Peck, Baldwin, and Walden, 
were appointed a Committee to make arrangements for devotional 
and missionary meetings to be held in the evenings of the present 

Adjourned till 2, P. M. Prayer by Rev. T. F. Caldicott, of Mas- 

2 o'clock, P. M. 

The Board met. Prayer by Rev. E. E. Cummings, of New 

A letter was received from William Colgate, Esq., of New York, 
excusing his absence from the meeting. 

The reading of the report of the Executive Committee was re- 
sumed by Rev. S. Peck. The report having been concluded, on 
motion of Rev. E. L. Magoon, of Ohio, it was referred, with the re- 
ports of the Treasurer and Auditing Committee, to the following 
Committees : — 

1. On Finances. — Rev. A. Wilson, and Messrs. P, P. Runyon, 
T. Gilbert, W. H. Munn and V. J. Bates. 

2. Agencies. — Rev. Messrs. D. Ives, J. Smitzer, S. W. Adams, 
and Messrs. T. Wattson and P. W. Dean. 

3. Publications. — Rev. Messrs. E. Nelson, S. S. Cutting, F. 
Snyder, G. I. Miles and Mr. S. Smith. 

4. Burnia7i and Karen Missions. — Rev. Messrs. E. L. Magoon, 
J. G. Warren, J. H. Kennard, D. G. Corey and S. J. Drake. 

5. Siam, China and Jissam Missions. — Rev. Messrs. B. T. 
Welch, D. D., L. Porter, E. E. Cummings, N. Colver and J. G. 

6. Rassa Mission, Africa. — Rev. Messrs. J. L. Ilodgo, J. Bluin, 
E. Hutchinson, M. Allen and T. C. Jameson. 

1848.] Tkirty -Fourth Annual Meeting of the Board. 5 

7. European Missions. — Rev. Messrs. R. Turnbull, A. D. Gil- 
lette, B. Brierly, E. E. L. Taylor and H. Davis. 

8. Indian Missions. — Rev. Messrs. E. Lathrop, J. C. Harrison, 
A. Bailey, L. Tucker and E. Turney. 

Rev. S. Peck presented a report from the Executive Committee on 
" Tlie Foreign Expenditures of the Union, and the policy to be pur- 
sued therein for the next live years;" which on motion of Rev. B. T, 
Welch, D. D., of New York, was referred to a Committee of 
seven: Rev. Messrs. F. Wayland, D.D., G. W. Eaton, D. D., G. 
S. Webb, J. Stevens, Z, Freeman, and Messrs. F. Humphrey and 
G. Cummings, were appointed the Committee. 

Rev. E. Bright, Jr., in behalf of the Executive Committee, pre- 
sented a report on " The Home Expenditures of the Union, and the 
policy to be pursued in home operations;" which on motion of Rev. 
G. S. Webb, of Pennsylvania, was referred to a Committee of five; 
Rev. Messrs. P. Church, D. D., M. J. Rhees, L. Leonard, G. W. 
Anderson and W. H. Shailer, wei-e appointed the Committee. 

Rev. S. Peck for the Executive Committee, presented a report 
on " The Expediency of Reinforcing the Teloogoo Mission;" which 
on motion of Rev. L. Tucker, of New York, was referred to a Com- 
mittee of five; Rev. Messrs. W. R. Williams, D, D., E. Tucker, 
L. Tracy, J. Teasdale and A. P. Mason, were appointed the Com- 

Rev. E. Bright, Jr., for the Executive Committee, presented a 
report on " The Wants of the Treasury for the Year ending April 
1, 1849;" which on motion of Rev. M. J. Rhees, of Delaware, was 
referred to a Committee of five; Rev. Messrs. J. N. Granger, J. S. 
Backus, M. G. Clarke, H. V. Jones and Mr. A. Day, were appoint- 
ed the Committee. 

Rev. W. R. Williams, D. D., Chairman of the Committee of 
Nine appointed at the last meeting of the Board, on a proposed 
amendment to the 3d Article of the Constitution, read the report of 
that Committee. The report was made the order of the day for to- 
morrow moi'ning at 9 o'clock. 

The Committee on Devotional Exercises recommended that the 
services this evening be conference and prayer, in concert with the 
brethren at our various missionary stations throughout the world. 
The recommendation was adopted. 

Adjourned with prayer by Rev. B. T. Welch, D. D., of New 

7^ o'clock, P. M. 

The Board met, and the meeting was opened with singing the 
895th hymn in the Psalmist. Prayer was offered by Rev. M. J. 
Rhees, of Delaware. 

The Foreign Secretary read the resolution adopted by the Ex- 
ecutive Committee, December 13, 1847, and which is as follows: — 

" Resolved, That the Foreign Secretary write to the missions of 
the Union relatively to the time of holding the annual meetings of 
the Union and the Board, and invite the missionaries together with 
the native churches and preachers, to assemble at their respective 
stations within the week of the anniversaries, — which commence on 

6 Thirty -Fourth Annual Meeting of the Board. [May, 

the Tuesday preceding the third Thursday in May and ordinarily 
continue till Friday following, — to offer united and " effectual, fer- 
vent prayer " for divine favor and aid; that God " will pour out in 
those days of His Spirit " on the members of the Union, and on all 
who at home or abroad are associated with them in the missionary 
work; that He will give to us all just conceptions of the nature and 
greatness of the woi-k, and of our individual accountableness for its 
right prosecution; that He will impart to us all, according to our 
need, love, wisdom, zeal and concord in the adoption and execution of 
plans and measures, and give them large success; and that, having 
regard to the fewness of the laborers and the obstacles in the way 
of their increase. He will, in the language of the Union at its last 
annual meeting, 'induce men to go as missionaries to the heathen, 
and cause the churches to be willing to let them go and to sustain 

Remarks were made by Rev. J. Blain, of Mass., Rev. J. Peck, 
of N. Y., Rev. A. D. Gillette, of Pa., Rev. A. Bennett, of N. Y., 
and Rev. D. Packer, of Vt. Prayer was offered by Rev. J. Smit- 
zer, of N. Y., and Rev. G. S. Webb, of Pa. 

The doxology was then sung in Karen by Rev. J. H. Vinton, 
missionary from Burmah, and the Karen converts who accompanied 
him to this country; and again in English by the great congre- 

Adjourned till 9 o'clock to-morrow morning. Benediction by 
Rev. E. Tucker, of New York. 

Wednesday, May 17. 

The Board met at 9 o'clock, A. M., and the meeting was opened 
with prayer by Rev. John Bates, from Ireland. 

The minutes of yesterday's proceedings were read and approved. 

An invitation was presented by Rev. G. C. Baldwin, of Troy, 
from the Executive Committee of the Troy Young Men's Associa- 
tion to the members of the Union, to make free use of the rooms of 
that Association during the sessions of the Union. 

On motion the invitation was accepted, and the thanks of the 
Board voted to the Association. 

An Abstract of the Annual Report of the Executive Committee 
was ordered to be printed for the "use of the members of the Board 
and Union. 

The Board then proceeded to the order of the day, which was 
the report of the Committee on the Alteration of the 3d Article of 
the Constitution.* The report of the Committee was accepted; 
and the following resolution adopted. 

Resolved, That the report of the Committee of Nine on the Alter- 
ation of the Constitution, be published with the proceedings of the 
Board, and be presented to the Union, and that the Home Secretary 
be directed to address a circular to every member of the Union, 
requesting his opinion on the question now at issue, and that he re- 
port the result at the next meeting, 

* See end of Treasurer's report. 

1848.] Expediency of Reinfo7'cing the Teloogoo Mission. 7 

Resolved, That the Home Secretary be directed to forward by 
mail to every member of the Union, a copy of the report of the 
Committee of Nine. 

Rev. Messrs. F. Wayland, D. D., J. Stevens and E. Worth, 
were appointed a Committee to prepare a circular in accordance 
with the foregoing resolution, to be submitted to the Board during 
its present meeting. 

The Committee to whom was referred the paper on the " Expe- 
diency of Reinforcing the Teloogoo Mission," reported through 
Rev. W. R. Williams, D. D., chairman. The report was adopted, 
and ordered to be printed, 


The question submitted for consideration is, virtually, Shall the Teloogoo 
Mission be continued? For more than two years it lias been left in charge 
of native assistants. They have been faithful, yet greatly need the presence 
and cooperation of missionaries. It' missionaries are not to be sent, it can 
hardly be expedient to protract the existence of the mission. The expen- 
diture wonld not be justified by the anticipated results; while, by seenjing 
to retain tjje field, we should stand in the way of any who possibly would 
desire to enter it. 

I. Among the reasons in favor of continuing the Teloogoo Mission, the 
most jirominent are 

The character, number and state of the Teloogoo peoi)le, giving promise 
of early success proportionate to the expenditure. We have not been dis- 
ai)pointed in the character of the field we have been cultivating, in its ex- 
tent, its accessibility, or its productiveness. The Teloogoos are ibnnd to be 
what tljey were said to be, and their position in regard to the introduction 
of the gospel among them as favorable as had been represented. In these 
respects, the motives which led to the establishing of the mission abide in 
full force. 

The state and claims of the Teloogoo Mission were under consideration 
with the Executive Committee in August, J 846, immediately on the return 
of Mr. Day to this country. In the report then submitted and adopted in 
tlie Committee, were, among others, the following representations. "The 
Teloogoo country extends 700 or 800 miles along the (western) coast (of the 
Bay of Bengal), from Madras on the south to Ganjam on the northeast; and 
about 'iOO miles inland, circling from Cudda|)ah through Hyderabad city. 
Many Teloogoos also reside, it is supposed, beyond those limits. The 
po[)ulation who use the Teloogoo language is 10,000,000. 'I'he Nellore 
district (the seat of the Teloogoo Mission) contains 2,000,000 of people, 
or 113 persons to every square mile. They are considered one of the 

noblest races in Ilindostan One half of the male population can read. 

The climate is as healtliful as that of Burmah. . The protection of life, limb 

and property, is entire There is no hindrance to missionary lal)or, 

except li-om caste. . . . Missionaries are not received into private houses, 
but may preach without molestation in the streets to audiences of from 
twenty-five to 100, easily collected. Religious instruction may also be 
given in schools without offence Missionaries could have any num- 
ber of pupils under their immediate instruction or general superintend- 
ence," &.C. 

With regard to the prospect of early success proportionate to the expen- 
diture, the history of the mission, if less marked and decisive, furnishes at 
the worst no ground of discouragement. No mission of the Unidli, in com- 
parison with the work to be performed, has been sustained by us so feebly 
as this. Mr, Day commenced the mission in 1836, and in consequence of 
the early and continued sickness of the brother who some years later was 

8 Thirty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the Board. [May, 

sent to help him, has labored in it single-handed, with the exception of a 
i'ew native assistants. He returned to this country on account of illness in 
1846. During the ten years of his residence in the Teioogoo country, the 
language was to be learned, the country explored, the character and ways 
of the people searched out, the sphere and site of the mission to be selected 
and a station built up ; the foundation, in a word, was to be laid ; — and all 
to be etfected by one man, among a nunjerous and "strange" people, in 
an unaccustomed climate, under repeated visitations of sickness and with 
multiplied domestic cares. But more has been effected than mere prelim- 
inary labors, something more than simply laying the foundation. Much of 
the time of Mr. Day in subsequent years, as also that of the assistants, was 
spent in preaching, preac^mg- everyday. Schools also were established and 
regularly sustained, at one time twelve, at an average cost each of but $50 
per annum. And says the report above mentioned, " The mission is in an 
encouraging state as to probabilities of success. A good impression has 
been made, especially on the minds of the scholars. . . . Six or seven per- 
sons, whose piety is unquestioned, are connected with the station. , . . 
There is a general ex))ectation that the Christian religion will prevail." 
We may add, that in India and especially Southern India, there is a general 
preparation for the conversion of the people from dumb idols to the living 
God. The scriptures have been translated into the Teioogoo language, and 
the New Testament with portions of the Old, printed; also religious tracts; 
and widely circulated. South of the Teloogoos are the effective and pros- 
perous Tamil Missions of the American Board of Commissioners. More 
than all, the i)romises of God to his servants, that his word shall not return 
to him void, and that Christ shall see of the travail of his soul and shall be 
satisfied, together with kindred declarations, are as applicable to the faith- 
ful ministration of the gospel among the Teloogoos as among any other 
people. And so far as concerns our faith and works, prior to the revela- 
tion of God's purpose in his acts of grace or reprobation, they are as 
encouraging and authoritative in behalf of one people as another. " In the 
morning sow thy seed, and in the evening withhold not thy hand ; for thou 
knowest not whether shall prosper, either this or that; or whether they 
both shall be alike good." 

We have only to adduce further, in this connection, the testimony of 
the Rev. Amos Sutton, of the Orissa Mission, at whose instance originally 
the mission was undertaken. It is contained in a letter written near the 
close of ] 846. Speaking of the Teloogoos and of the importance of re- 
inforcing the mission, Mr. Sutton remarks: — "The population is immense, 
— they are a noble race, — tlie climate good, — the country always accessible, 
— the government favorable, — the language beautiful, — many elementary 
works prejjared, — medical aid easily obtained, — the expense moderate, — 
intercourse with the peojjle unrestrained, and a beginning made." " lu my 
opinion," he adds, "you had better consider well, before you abandon your 
present ground in Soutiiern India; you will, probably, never recover it if 
you do. The tide of conversion is rapidly rolling up from the far south, 
and you will one day wish your agents to be there, to share in the 
work. Though I have just returned from Burmah, yet I must say, that I /^'^ 
have yet seen no country con)parable to India as a missionary field." 'A'^- 

II. Considerations derived from providential circumstances, with respect t' 
to the expediency of continuing the Teioogoo Mission, are of a more ques- 
tionable bearing. At one time it was apparent that the providence of God 
had cast the Teioogoo peo])le on our hands. So far as was known to us, 
the Teloogoos had none on whom they could so safely rely under God for 
salvation as ourselves. If we failed them, others more assuredly. Other 
benevolent societies or individuals had at different times made more or less 
inconsiderable attempts to introduce the gospel, but the stations were not 
vigorously sustained, and sonje were broken up. There was no station but 
our own in the Nellore district, containing, as before stated, a population of 
2,000,000. Of late there are indications of a more favorable character. 

1848,] Expediency of Re'uiforcing tJie Teloogoo Mission. 9 

" Not a few Teloojroo youths have been educated in Madras and Viza- 
gapatam, in the English schools, i. e., iy Enghsh science, including mathe- 
matics, geogiaph}', astronomy, mental philosophy, &c. ; and while they 
have been pursuing these studies, the truths of God's word have been daily 
presented to their understandings and applied to tlieir hearts by faithful 
servants of Christ." "Several Teloogoos have already turned to the Lord 
in connection with the Scotch Free Church school in Madras." It is un- 
derstood that a missionary of the Church Missionary Society has recently 
been stationed even at Nellore. The Teloogoos are being more anil more 
encompassed with the influences of the gospel, and at no distant day must 
be pervaded with them. Facts like these are encouragements to prosecute 
the Teloogoo Mission, but serve also to make less imperative the apparent 

''With respect to considerations more nearly affecting us; — we have a 
brother, well acquainted with the language, character and state of the Te- 
loogoo people, who having regained his health is prepared to resume his 
labors among them, at least for a limited period ; and there is another ap- 
pointed missionary desirous to accomj)any him, who is qualified for the ser- 
vice; we have a station with mission house, school houses, &c., in good re- 
pair and well located in the heart of the people ; and there are three laith- 
ful native assistants, a Christian church, and the pupils of five flourishing 
schools, to welcome our missionary brethren and usher them into their 
labors. The precise importance of this class of considerations it may be 
difiicult to determine. At the time the Nellore station was all but dis- 
mantled by the sickness and removal of the missionaries, providential indi- 
cations seemed strongly in favor of its abandonment. Outward circum- 
stances are ciiangeful. Still, the relations and claims of the mission differ 
materially from what they would have been, had the health of our brotlier 
continued infirm ; were there no missionary brother prepared to go with 
him ; or had the native laborers proved unfaithful, the schools been dis- 
persed, and the mission premises laid waste. 

We forbear to note, except by a mere allusion, the personal consider- 
ation that the brother who is desirous to reenter the mission, was appoint- 
ed to it by the Board some twelve years since, and has faithfully executed 
his trust. We also, on the other hand, merely allude to a more general 
fact, the importance of which is diversely estimated by different individuals, 
that the Teloogoo country stands apart from the fields which Divine Provi- 
dence has given more exclusively to American Baptists, and which lie on 
the eastern shores of the Bay of Bengal. 

III. A third class of considerations relate to the ability of the Missionary 
Union to prosecute the Teloogoo Mission with a just regard to the claims 
of other missions. The resources of the Union are limited. Its annual in- 
come is less than $100,000. The income may increase; but will it in- 
crease by more than $10,000 a year? With but $10,000 increase, year by 
year, it will take the ensuing five years to place the stations in good condi- 
tion, i. e., with a full complement of men and means, — without adding to 
the numi)er of stations. In this supposed annual increase of income and 
expenditure, provision is made for reinforcing the Teloogoo Mission ; but 
would not whatever might be withholden from the Teloogoos be so much 
in addition available for Burmans and Karens ? Might not a full supply of 
all the stations retained be effected in a shorter period, or an additional 
station be founded in Burmah or Arracan ? — Again, the ordinary expendi- 
tures of the missions in Asia, without any multiplying of stations, are con- 
tinually augmenting, in proportion as the work advances. The income of 
the Union may increase ; and so, too, may the demand for it. It is a ques- 
tion of grave importance. How may we apply our resources to the best ad- 
vantage? Among what people and at what places and times may we hope 
to carry forward most effectively the work of evangelization? — These, and 
sinjilar inquiries, have pressed with great Ibrce upon the minds of the Ex- 

10 Th'irt]) -Fourth Annual Meeting of the Board. [May, 

ecutive Committee, and demand in their judgment the maturest considera- 
tion of the Board. 

IV. In close connection with fiscal considerations stands the more gen- 
eral inquiry, — and it is an inquiry not unattended with difficulty, — as to the 
policy of reducing our entire missionary operations within narrower bounds. 
It has been laid down as a principle in missionary enterprises, and we hold 
it to be a just principle, that missionaries and missionary institutions should 
"work wKtre God works, and whtn God works." They are but instruments 
to do his pleasure, and without him they can do nothing. But how flir 
shall tliis principle be carried out? The principle is not of difficult appli- 
cation within certain limits, whenever and wherever God has manifestly 
begun to work. The difficulty begins when we attempt to deterniine the 
extreme boundary to which the principle is to be advocated and applied. 
Shall we work only when and where God works, and where he is sttn to 
work .^ Shall we then and there concentrate all our resources, provided 
there be opportunity and scope for all ? or, are there other ways in which 
God indicates when and where we are to work, and by observing thost in- 
dications shall we still do his pleasure, even though ht may not^ to outward 
appearance, have begun there to work ? 

On the other hand, it is equally a just and generally received principle, 
that opportunity and duty, power to do good and obligation to do it, go to- 
gether. " Withhold not good from them to whom it is due, when it is in 
the power of thine hand to do it." Is it then a duty to do present good to- 
day, irrespectively of the ojjportunities and obligations which will be pres- 
ent to us to-morrow? Shall we expend our symjiathy and strength and 
skill on every and all fields accessible to us and needy of culture, regardless 
of the limited nature of our capabilities, and the priority of claims of choice 
fields ? 

But not to enter upon an extended discussion as to the general policy of 
concentrating or englarging our operations, — especially as concerns the 
question of extreme concentration or extreme expansion, — we submit the 
following practical suggestions in regard to the case before us : — not, how- 
ever, that they should by themselves determine the Board to a certain issue, 
but rather as points claiming with others some regard. And 

1. Assuming that the income of tlie ensuing five years applicable to for- 
eign expenditures, be what we have elsewhere intimated is desirable, i. e., 
$93,000 the current year and an annual increase thenceforward of $10,000, 
— the stations now held by the Union can be effectively sustained, so far as 
regards pecuniary ability, and the Teloogoo Mission be continued. The 
present disquieted state of the missions, from an inadequate supply of la- 
borers, will soon be remedied. Five years, and we shall have attained. It 
is to be noted that the multiplication of stations is subject to our own 
power. The stations we have must be sustained, must be effectively 
manned and supplied ; lest we lose our labor, or overtask our brethren, or 
fail to turn our opportunities to the best account. But we are not bound to 
multiply stations. The word of God may be sounded forth from a single 
"hill of the prophets" over all the land. Native laborers can be sent 
abroad, who will sow the good seed beside all waters. 

2. With respect to probabilities that the designated amount will be re- 
alized, — it is worthy of careful consideration whether the Teloogoo Mis- 
sion by its reflex influence, if duly sustained, would not do its part; 
whether, in some good measure at least, it would not "pay its way." The 
necessary outlay the first five years would not be large. If a single mission 
family were to accomjmny Mr. Day to Nellore, the additional expenditure 
for the mission the first year would be less than $3,000, would hardly ex- 
ceed $2,000 ; and if a second family were sent another year, the ivhole an- 
nual expenditm-e would then not exceed $5,000. Would not a part of this 
sum conic directly from interest in the Teloogoo Mission ; and if the mis- 
sion were abandoned, would all of it be saved to the Karen or other Mis- 
sion ? Different missions have their respective favorers and supporters. 

1848.] Expediency of Reinforcing the Teloo goo Mission. 11 

Multiplication of interests in this direction may be strength; concentration 
hardly pressed, may be decrease. — Again, what would be the more general 
subjective influence of drawing back? Not what we can, but what we ivill, 
as respects the gross amount of our missionary contributions, has been the 
measure of our ability; and if we are able to go up and possess this land, 
yet refuse to go up, the temper of lieart that faints through fear or loiters 
through indifference, may eat into our strength like a cancer, spreading dis- 
may and death. Again ; 

3. Admitting that even with the aid of the Teloogoo Mission the sup- 
posed income would not be realized, and that by consequent necessity if 
the mission were continued, all the stations could not be reinforced to the 
extent of tlieir demand within the ensuing five years; — it might still be a 
question for consideration by the Board, whether, for the sake of continu- 
ing the mission, the period for a full supply of one or more of the stations 
ought, or ought not, to be extended beyond five years ; and whether the 
evils resulting in any case from want of reinforcements would, or would 
not, be too urgent to admit of such delay. 

It is further worthy of note, 

4. On supposition that the Teloogoo 3Iission be continued and the ratio 
of increase of income the next five years be all that has been indicated, 
— the full increase of subsequent years will be available for missions then 
most in demand of it, or towards which our affectionate sympathies may be 
most vehemently turned. The expenditures for home operations, Indian 
Missions and the Missions in Europe, are in their nature or by general con- 
sent of a permanently limited extent. They need not, nor ought they, to 
be greatly enlarged. They now constitute one third of our expenditure. 
Double our income and outlay the ensuing ten years, — as we have doubled 
our income within the last ten, — and these expenditures will constitute only 
a sixth. Five sixths of our income will then be applicable to Asia and 
Africa; and nearly half our present income to Burniah alone. Meanwhile, 
we are giving to Burmah one half of all the reinforcements sent to our 
Asiatic Missions, as we also have given to it from the time that the other 
Asiatic Missions were undertaken. 

On the other hand, — 

5. The extent of our operations ought to be proportioned to our means 
to prosecute them. Neither duty nor expediency requires us to go, or to at- 
tempt to go, beyond our ability. So many stations and so many missions 
only ought to be retained or prosecuted, as can be prosecuted effectively. 
The height of the column must correspond with its base. With $100,000 
income we may do the work of $100,000; with $50,000 the work of $50,000. 

6. If, therefore, the supposition we have made as to the amount of 
income, will nof, in the judgment of the Board, be substantially realized; 
and if, also, the alternative be to continue all our missions and stations for 
an indefinite period with a deficiency of laborers such as exists at present, 
or to relinquish the Teloogoo Mission ; — then it will demand the earnest 
consideration of the Board whether the latter, — the relinquishment of the 
mission, — would not involve the less evil. There was a time in the history 
of the Union, or Convention, when, beyond all question, its operations were 
too widely extended, as compared with its existing resources. The policy 
of the Board and its Executives has been for a long |)eriod to effect a juster 
proportion between the two, — between the extent of the field and the power 
to cultivate it. While, on one hand, since 1838 the annual income from 
churches and individuals has been doubled, — on the other, several Indian 
Missions with the Hayti Mission have been discontinued or transferred to 
the Indian Mission Association, and no new mission undertaken. Whether 
a sufficient reduction in the number of missions has or has not been made, 
and whether it would be unsafe or otherwise to await a further increase of 
income, so as to make thereby the relative scale of operations judicious and 
effective, it is for the Board to judge. And, further; 

7. If, on a full consideration of the subject, it be the judgment of the 

12 Thirty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the Board. [May, 

Board that the number of missions as contrasted with the income for their 
support, present and prospective, is still disproportionably large, and that a 
reduction at some point is yet to be made, the Executive Committee are of 
opinion that such reduction may be efl'ected with least comparative injury, 
so far as concerns the Asiatic Missions, by discontinuing the Teloogoo 
Mission. Other missions have advanced to a greater maturity, or they in- 
volve interests a voluntary abandonment of which would inflict deeper and 
wider griefs, if not on individuals, yet on the Cliristian church at large. 

8. We have only to suggest in conclusion, that, be the decision what it 
may, it ought to be regarded as final. If the Teloogoo Mission cannot be 
sustained, now is the most favorable time for withdrawal. Already the 
missionaries are withdrawn, by the providence of God, and the entire clos- 
ing up of the mission, now in charge of native assistants, can be effected at 
comparatively little cost. If the decision be to continue the Mission, the 
missionaries ought to go forth with a well-founded assurance that, when by 
reason of death they shall cease to labor, others will enter into their labors. 
All which is respectfully submitted. 

By order of the Executive Committee, 

S. Peck, Cor. Sec. For. Dep. 

The Committee of this Board, to whom was referred the report of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee on the " Expediency of Reinforcing the Teloogoo 
Mission," would respectfully submit the following report : — 
The document laid before yoin- Board by the Executive Committee pre- 
sents with great thoroughness and in admirable equipoise the considera- 
tions that favor the reinforcement on the one hand, or, on t!ie other, the 
prompt, peremptory and final abandonment of our mission station among 
the Teloogoo people, a race of many noble natural endowments, large in 
numbers, and receiving as yet but little share in the missionary endeavors 
of the age. 

Your Executive Committee evidently shrink, with natural relentings, from 
the surrender of a field through many years the scene of faithful and not 
fruitless effort, where schools are planted and native assistants have been 
trained. It may seem, on some accounts, desirable to withdraw our limited 
resources from the western shores of the Bay of Bengal, where this is our 
solitary post, and concentrate them henceforth on the people of its east- 
ern coast, where we have many other detachments of our missionary staff. 
But, beside all natural regrets, they evidently feel it a tremendous responsi- 
bility to take our last, lingering farewell of a race, some ten millions in 
number, resigning them unevangelized to such other sympathies and help- 
ers as God may raise them up. If even our God is described as having 
" His repentings kindled together" when He would " give up Ephrnim,'" our 
churches may well falter here, at the thought of closing between themselves 
and this vast multitude of dying idolaters the door, and barring and bolting 
that door in despair ; — to Jje to us no longer a door of hope and access to 
evangelize their blindness, — to be to them no more a door of hope and es- 
cape, through which they may receive the light of salvation and evade the 
second death. 

If the Executive Committee, familiar with the whole subject from close 
and constant study of its details and relations, shrink from the responsibility 
of decision, your Board, whilst willing to afford them all proper aid and 
counsel in such emergencies, may also shrink, quite as justly, from deciding 
the same question, when that Board approach it with so much less fulness 
of knowledge and their judgment in the matter nnist be the hasty verdict 
passed on the briefest examination. To depart from the Teloogoo field is 
a step critical and irreparable. As we look to the brother whose health, 
broken down by years of assiduous and devout toil there, has now been so 
far restorefl that he yearns to resume, at least for a term of years, his sus- 
pended efforts there, — as we look to the brother offering himself as a co- 
adjutor in the same field, — as we then review our real means and opportu- 

1848.] Expediency of Reinforcing the Teloogoo Mission. 13 

nities of sustaining and augmenting, even most widely, our existing mis- 
sionary enterprise, — as we remember how often, in other portions of our 
field, accumulated discouragenjentM, well-nigh overwhelming our faith, 
have but preceded unexpected and overwhelming deliverances received 
from our Father, — we look to this missionary cluster of schools and native 
assistants, and our hearts say : " Destroy it not, for a hlessina; is in it" But, 
on the other hand, if, with all our means and opportunities as American 
Baptists, we have not the requisite zeal and faith, — if we are famishing 
into feebleness and despair many stations, where we might with the same 
means fully man and equip a few and important posts, — if there be, from 
the expanding labors and growing success of other churches, American and 
British, on the same western shores of the Bay of Bengal, hope that these 
desolations will not be long neglected, — it may be the duty of the Board 
and the Executive Committee (though it will not be the glory of the 
churches sustaining that Executive Conmiittee and Board,) to withdraw 
missionary fouces which these churches cannot or will not adequately sus- 
tain. If the Board do now abandon it, it should, in the judgment of this 
Committee be after solemn and public prayer, and with a deep sense of 
the vast results, interminable and incalculable, to these Teloogoos and our- 
selves, which such withdrawal involves. 

If not prepared now for such step, then this Committee are prepared 
to recommend it, as what might be the expression of this Board to their 
Executive Committee, that, in their judgment, the continuance or discontin- 
uance, the utter withdrawal or proper reinforcement of the Teloogoo Mis- 
sion should be made to depend on the extent of funds received during the 
next six months. If these promise the probable recei|)t during the year of 
the revenue the Executive Committee have calculated as necessary to the 
proper sup|)ort of all our existing missions, let the 'I'eloogoo Mission go on. 
By such augmentation of funds, we mean not the sending in of contribu- 
tions specifically designated for this Teloogoo Mission, but the general and 
liberal supi)ort of all our missions. If these be not forth coming, and it 
be thougi)t that no other and European Mission should be instead of this 
the first victim of retrenchment, then it must be sacrificed; but the respon- 
sibility is, where, before God and in j)rospect of the judgment day, we as a 
Board leave it, — with the churches and the individual Christians composing 
those churches, and not with ourselves. T/if?/ and not ive will have said, 
"Quench the smoking flax. Let the light of that struggling mission go out." 
And if such be the reluctant act compelled by apathy in our churches 
and extorted from the Executive Conmiittee, we will, whilst deploring 
the calamitous result, trust that God will put into the hearts of other Chris- 
tians greater i'aithfulness or into their hands larger means. And as from 
the field of missions in South Africa, abandoned in earlier years by our Mo- 
ravian brethren, our brethren of the English Congregationalists and Metho- 
dists and the French Protestants have in later years reaped abundant harvests, 
so from our lack of service in this mission, if abandoned, we will hope God 
may yet stimulate other Christians of our own or other countries to give to 
the Teloogoos the missionary, the bible, the Sabbath school, the tract, till 
they too are christianized. Blessed will the result be, if the full and aug- 
mented charities of our churche^ in the coming half year shall say to the 
Teloogoos, " We, the Baptists iif America, will not desert you ;" and shall 
say to our br. Day, "Reenter and hold for Christ and for us the field 
drenched by the prayers and ;tears of many weary years."* 
All which is respectfully submitted. 

/William R. Williams, "j 
Elisha Tucker, ) 

Leonard Tracy, )■ Committee. 

John Teasdale, | 

Alanson p. Mason, j 

^ . 

* See also d«aings of the Union and the Board, pp. seqq. 

14 Thirty -Foiirtli Annual Meeting of the Boaid. [May, 

The Committee on Finances and the Treasurer's and Auditors' 
Reports, reported through Rev. A. Wilson, chairman. The re- 
port was adopted and ordered to be printed. 

The Cointnittee on the Treasurer's Report and on Finances, report: — 

That having examined the Report of the Treasurer and found it correctly 
kept and properly audited ; they have proceeded to examine an inquiry 
over which many fast friends of the Union are very properly disposed to 
exercise a vigilant scrutiny. This inquiry relates to the per centage of our 
funds expended in the home work of the missions. Men of business are 
aware that the collection of dues, scattered in small sums over a wide 
extent of country, is usually attended with no inconsiderable expense ; 
without at all taking into the account tlie operations which have created the 
demands. Our home work embraces the whole expense of obtaining, col- 
lecting and disbursing our funds. The Committee find that these three 
services together, cost a fraction less than 14 per cent, on donations and 
legacies, not including grants from coordinate Societies and from the U. S. 

The friends of the Union will bear in mind two ways in which they may 
very |)roperly hope to diminish this per centage. One way is by in- 
creasing the amount of their donations, — as a large business can usually be 
conducted at a less per centage than a small one. The other way is by in- 
creasing our promptness in our contributions, thereby diminishing the ex- 
pense of agency in their collection. The Committee would also present 
the inquiry whether some of the agents anil secretaries might not increase 
their fraternization with the brethren among whom they travel, and thereby 
diminish the amount of their travelling expenses. 

While we bear in mind the fact that the appearance of a debt at present 
against the Union, does not result from a failure of any part of the subscrip- 
tions to liquidate the $40,000 debt, — the full amount of that subscri[)tion 
having been paid, — nor from any new expenditures, but simply from an 
earlier charge of bills drawn, (as explained in the Report of last year, p. 5,) 
we are at the same time cheered with the fact that these liabilities have 
been diminished the |)ast year by the sum of more than $4,000. 

In closing, the Committee would call upon all the friends of the Union to 
unite with them in devout thanksgiving to the King of Zion, who has given 
them both their power to get wealth, and their hearts to use it in sending 
the message of life and hope to nations sitting in darkness and in the 
shadow of death. 

Apam Wilson, "^ 

P. P. RuNtON, I 

T. Gilbert, [> Committee. 
W. H. MUNN, I 
V. J. Bates, j 

The Committee on the Burman ^and Karen Missions reported 
through Rev. E. L. Magoon, chairman,; The report was adopted and 
ordered to be printed. \ 

The Burman and Karen Missions will eveKue greatly endeared to Amer- 
ican Baptists. The first stands supreme in hi\torical dignity, and the other 
is unexanqded in its economy and success. TRhere are many yet among us 
who fondly reinemlter when the first messengers of truth sought those 
climes to difTuse tlie word of God. Delighif\il\ reminiscences will be for- 
ever associated with .Judson and Burmah, Boardi^ian and the Karens. 

The mission at Rangoon has lately suffered ne\V acts of tyranny, but it is 
believed that such resistance cannot long endure. The wave destined to 
disenthral the world is fast rolling from west to east, and will soon overtake 
despots in i\sia as well as in Europe, sweeping a^ay thrones and rending 

1848.] Report on Burman mid Karen Missions. 15 

every oppressive chain. Let the servants of Christ be patient and labor on, 
for deliverance and triumph are at hand. The results of missionary enter- 
prise aheady attained in Burmah Proper, will form a prominent chapter in 
the liistory of self-consecration the most pure, the most persevering and the 
most sacred. A heathen poet has said that " To direct a wanderer in the 
right way, is to light another man's candle by our own, which loses none 
of its light by what the other gains." It is exactly this beneficent office 
which the Redeenier requires at our hands when he commands us to 
" love our neighbor as ourselves." Preaching in Burmah is sometimes 
interrupted, but the power of the press is perpetual. The work of trans- 
lating and publishing goes steadily forward, and it is this sublime process 
that keeps the word of God constantly transfigured before millions of be- 
nighted men. Never were the labors of Judson and his associates more 
worthy of our sympathy and support than at the present moment. 

In contemplating the progress of the gospel among the Karens, your 
Committee are reminded of tlie definition of Christianity given by Lord 
Bacon, when he said, "The kingdom of heaven is compared, not to any 
great kernel, or nut, but to a grain of mustard-seed; which is one of the 
least grains, but hath in it a property and spirit hastily to get up and 
spread." Surely in this field we have the greatest encouragements to re- 
new our toil, for on every side we behold among the converts to truth 
the finest exemjilifications of its spirit and power. Thousands have re- 
cently been enlightened, and yet millions remain in a worse condition than 
the Apostle John when he looked on the sealed book and " wept," because 
there was none to open it. Faith has its book sealed with seven seals. 
The latent immortality in every human bosom pants to feed on its glorious 
instructions. But reason alone has no power to open that book. The 
most fearful considerations urge us to go forth to the whole world, exclaim- 
ing as did the angel to John, " Weep not, for the Lion of the tribe of Judah 
has jirevailed ;" he has borne light into the darkness, life into the domin- 
ions of death, and has mercifully given us the means to follow in his foot- 
steps to glory. 

As ignorance is the chief source of evil, and as the antidote to ignorance 
is knowledge, it follows that he who retards the progress of truth counte- 
nances crime and is himself the greatest of criminals; while he who circu- 
lates that mental light which is purer and holier than the visual, is the 
noblest improver and surest benefactor of his race. One is a manufacturer 
of barbarism; the other diffuses a life divine. Jesus clearly taught that 
whoever is able, and does not relieve the sufferer wherever he is found, is 
his foe ; whoever has the means, and does not feed his brother man, is his 
murderer. The dupe of opulence and luxury who refused a crumb of sup- 
port to the suffering on earth, was himself refused a drop of comfort in hell. 

Your Committee would earnestly hope that the missions now under con- 
sideration may receive the increased su[)port which their great merits and 
wants demand. There will be no lack of means, when" we shall have 
earnestly sought from our Lord his meek and beneficent spirit, praying him 
to " pour into our hearts that most excellent gift of charity, the very bond 
of peace and of all virtues ; without which, whosoever liveth is counted dead 
before thee." Love gentle and diff"usive, permeating and universal, re- 
poses in the heart of a true disciple, as a drop of dew in the bosom of a 
flower. Jesus Christ was a public blessing in the world ; "He went about 
doing good :" and such should all his followers be. He was the Son of 
God, but the only title he ever invoked upon himself was, "the Son of 
Man," and in that title he announced a new era for the world ; then the era 
of humanity commenced in the beneficence of Him who taught that after 
the name of God, nothing should be more grand than the nan)e of man, 
and nothing should be more efficacious than his miseries to obtain succor 
and fraternity. As soon as the atonement was offered, and he had thus ar- 
rived at the post of supreme command, he arose in the majesty of infinite 
benevolence and said, " Go preach the gospel to every creature." Let us 

16 Thirty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the Board. [May, 

be imbued with the same spirit, and soon, with the chiefest of the apostles, 
no loijger able to contain within his heart the triumphant chant of disen- 
thralled mankind, we shall exclaim, "Now is there neither Jew nor Greek, 
bond nor free; for ye are all one in Christ." 

E. L. Magoon, "1 

J. H. Kennard, I 

S. J. Drake, \ Committee. 

D. G. Corey, | 

J. G. Warren, j . * 

The Committee on the Bassa Mission, Africa, reported through 
Rev. J. L. Hodge, chairman. The report was adopted and ordered 
to be printed. 

The Committee on the Bassa Mission ask leave to present the following 

report : — "• 

Having examined the condition and wants of the Mission to the Bassas, 
we cannot resist the conviction that it has peculiar and pressing claims 
upon the aid and sympathies of the Union and the churches, and that it 
ought speedily to be reinforced. We are aware that efforts to evangelize 
that benighted country are liable to interruption, especially by mortality 
among the missionaries ; yet the Great Head of the church requires his re- 
deemed disciples to go and " teach all nations," neglecting none on account 
of unhealthiness of climate or degradation of people. Christian zeal and 
benevolence, encouraged by a trusting faith in God, the power of the gos- 
pel, and the promised aid of the Holy Spirit, bid us brave all dangers and 
"sow beside all waters." We know not what blessings may result from 
faithful, self-denying labors. Unexpected prosperity may attend efforts 
put forth in the spirit of the gospel, when, to the eye of sense, the prospect 
is dark and discouraging. 

But our mission in Africa has not been undertaken in vain. The Lord 
has crowned the toils of his servants with success. His blessing is now 
resting upon that mission, and its condition is as encouraging as at any pre- 
vious period of its history. But it greatly needs reinforcement. Those who 
are laboring there, feel almost disheartened because additional aid is with- 
held so long. They earnestly plead for another missionary, as the only 
means of not losing what has already been expended and sacrificed. 

Your Committee cherish the hope that the pressing wants of the Bassa 
people will be promptly and generously considered, and that the noble 
band of missionaries among them will not be forgotten ; but every facility 
and aid furnished them, until the islands of the sea shall wait for the 
divine law, and Ethiopia stretch forth her hands unto God. 
All which is respectfully submitted. 

James L. Hodge, Chairman. 

The Committee on Publications reported through Rev. E, Nelson, 
chairman. The report was adopted and ordered to be printed. 

The Committee on Publications submit the following report: — 

That it must be highly gratifying to the members of the Board, as it is to 
your Committee, that the publications of the Society are now so conducted 
as to require no draft upon your treasury. 

There is a balance for the year ending December, 1847, in favor of the 
Ma<raziMe of $331,94, and in fiivor of the Macedonian, published at Boston, 
of $79,67, and in favor of the Cincinnati edition of $39,65. Whatever can 
be done to diminish the expenditures of the Board and to place at their dis- 
posal available funds, is to be encouraged. But your Committee would 
most seriously deprecate a policy which should tend in any measure to cir- 
cumscribe or lessen the circulation of these publications. They bring the 

1848.] Report on Publications. 17 

Executive Board constantly in contact with the members of our churches. 
The Magazine presents a connected, historical view of our missions and of 
the operations of the Board in a form convenient to be preserved. If any 
Christian brother would, at a small expense, leave a valuable legacy to his 
posterity, let him subscribe for the Magazine, read it, and get it bound. 

The Macedonian being made up generally of short, spirit-stirring mis- 
sionary articles, is highly adapted to that class of persons in our churches 
who have not time for general reading. Its influence has never been over- 
rated. None can duly estimate the missionary interest it awakens in our 
churches, who have not witnessed its workings. Your Committee can 
hardly conceive that any of our churches are so far advanced in the cause 
of missions as not to be materially benefitted by the circulation among all 
the members, of these periodicals. But to the njore remote and less in- 
formed churches, the benefits are incalculable. The Committee make 
these remarks for the purpose of stating their deep conviction, that the 
Board sljould pursue a liberal policy, especially with their collecting agents, 
in difiiisiug these i)ublications among the remote and destitute and lieeble 
churches where they go. Hundreds of pastors no doubt have yet to learn, 
with how little sacrifice and pains and care they could, by the circulation 
of the Macedonian, stir up a missionary spirit among their people. 

One of our largest benevolent Societies circulates gratis thousands of 
copies of a paper, sustaining the same relation to its Board as the Mace- 
donian does to ours ; and it is most certainly the conviction of that Board 
that this liberal distribution is as if they planted cents in their field and 
they come up dollars. 

The circulation of the Macedonian will be as the planting of the seeds of 
piety in the minds of our children and youth, which, there is reason to be- 
lieve, will, by the grace of God, yield a glorious harvest to the mission 

The announcement in the Secretaries' Report, of the preparation of a 
History of our Missions by a brother competent to the work, will awaken 
the liveliest anticipations. Such a work is greatly needed and desired by 
our churches ; and il" happily executed, it will undoubtedly be a means of 
enlarging our missionary operations, as well as a source of income to the 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

E. Nelson, Chairman. 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee be authorized to circu- 
late gratuitously as many copies of the Macedonian as will equal 
the net profits of that paper, to pastors of churches who do not 
take it, for the purpose of increasing its circulation. 

The Foreign Secretary introduced, with appropriate remarks, 
Rev. J. H. Vinton, one of the missionaries of the Board to the 
Karens, recently returned to this country; and Kone Louk and 
Myah A, — two Karen native assistants, who accompanied him to 
aid in the prosecution of the work of translation. 

They were afiectionately received, in behalf of the Board, by the 
chairman, Hon. J. H. Duncan. 

Adjourned till 2, P. M. Prayer by Rev. H. Davis, of New York, 

2 o'clocJc, P. M. 

The Board met, and the meeting was opened with prayer by 
Rev. J. C. Harrison, of Pennsylvania. 

A communication from Isaac Newton, Esq., proprietor of steam- 
boat Hendrick Hudson, was received through S. H. Tupper, liber- 

18 Thirty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the Board. [May, 

ally offering a free passage on said boat from Troy to New York 
city, to all the ministers of the Union. 

On motion, the thanks of the Board were ordered to be presented 
to Isaac Newton, Esq., for his kindness and liberality. 

The Committee on Indian Missions reported through Rev. E. 
Lathrop, chairman. The report was adopted and ordered to be 

The Committee to whom was referred that part of the Report of the Execu- 
tive Board relating to Indian Missions, would respectfully preseut the 
following report : — 

The developments of the past year have in no measure weakened the 
conviction expressed on former occasions, that the Missions to the North 
American Indians, though attended with some embarrassments, deserve 
to be prosecuted with undiminished interest and vigor. 

In addition to the other obvious considerations which prompt us, as 
Christ's disciples, to engage heartily in this work, it ought to be distinctly 
remembered that the pecunian/ means employed in sustaining these missions 
are furnished, to a considerable extent, by the U. S. Government; thus re- 
lieving our treasury from any serious pressure in this quarter, which might 
otherwise operate to the disadvantage of other and equally important 
claims. This fact is applicable, especially, to four out of the five missions 
which we have established among the Indians.* 

It is not on this ground solely, however, that your Committee would re- 
commend the continuance, and, if practicable, the increase of evangelical 
labors among these interesting, but too long culpably neglected tribes. 
The Indians of North America are a part of that great unchristianized por- 
tion of the human family toward which our sympathies and efforts, as a 
missionary body, are professedly directed. Besides, we are their debtors 
in a sense which cannot be urged as to any other of the nations whom we 
seek to bless. Having possessed ourselves so bountifully of their temporal 
things, is it demanding too much of us, that we give them in i-eturn some- 
what, at least, of our spiritual treasure ? 

While, therefore, the cry of Burmah and of China and of the far off Te- 
loogoos, awakens properly a response in the bosom of American Christians, 
your Committee would recommend that the cry of America's own perish- 
ing children should not be less heeded and effective. 
In behalf of the Committee, 

Edward Lathrop, Chairman. 

The Committee on Agencies reported through Rev. S. W. 
Adams. The report was adopted and ordered to be printed. 

The Committee to whom was referred the paper on Agencies, beg leave to 

offer the following report: — 

They are gratified to learn that the difficult and often embarrassing work 
of home agency has been met with commendable industry and faithfulness. 
They rejoice that amid the discouragements unavoidable in fields sterile by 
nature, there are indications of improvement. 

The Committee are deeply conscious of the pressing exigencies which 
impose the necessity of agency labor, nor do they conceive how contribu- 
tions requisite for our missionary operations could at present be secured in- 
dependently of this kind of service. But while we admit this humiliating 
fact, and deplore its existence, we insist upon the doctrine that it is the 
duty of pastors to carry out a well devised method of raising funds. The 

* In the Tonawanda Mission the Treasurer merely remits to the New York Baptist 
State Convention what is received from the United States for that purpose. 

1848.] Home Expenditures of the Union. 19 

agents appointed to this work are not to supplant or supersede pastoral 
effort, but to supply the deficiency where it exists, and, if possible, enhance 
efficiency wherever it abounds. There should be mutual cooperation be- 
tween pastors and agents. Aid is thus interchangeably furnished, to cheer 
each in their work and promote the interests of a common cause. 

The past year has been replete with instances of united and concentrated 
action, which betoken more systematic and permanent effort to sustain our 
missions in future. We advert with pleasure to missionary meetings, 
called at the suggestion of agents or leading individuals, in which the at- 
tendance of many ministering and lay brethren has been secured, and by 
prayerful consideration of missionary topics fresh interest has been elicited, 
such as decidedly favors improving changes in our fiscal aflFairs. 

The Committee are fully aware of the desirableness of prosecuting this 
work with as little expense as possible. Meetings of the character just 
named, often originate measures which abate the expenses of the work, 
and enlarge the contributions to the mission cause, and furnish a rational 
hope of permanent supply. 

The Committee would recommend rather an extension than a contraction 
of the field of labor. The portions that have been least productive, and 
where past returns would seem to dissuade us from continuing their cul- 
ture, still demand our notice. Of this character Canada West may be men- 
tioned. It may, however, be advisable to bestow this labor in a different 
manner. Let the agent or agents be sent into the less fruitful sections in 
their harvest seasons. Thus, it is possible, an agent by being present 
at the associational sessions may secure, or be the means of securing, if not 
as njuch as though employed on the ground the whole time, a net return 
not inferior. 

Your Committee concur in the policy now pursued, and recommend the 
continuance of the agency work. They cherish full confidence in the Ex- 
ecutive Committee to select the men and direct their operations in this im- 
portant branch of missionary enterprise. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

D. Ives, Chairman. 

The Committee on " Home Expenditures of the Union, and the 
Policy to be Pursued in Home Operations," reported through Rev. 
P. Church, D. D., chairman. 


The home expenditures of the Union embrace whatever is paid from its 
treasury to make the organization a safe and successful agent in sustaining 
the missions. The items named in the Treasurer's Report under the heads 
of Agencies, Publications, Secretaries' Department, Treasurer's Department 
and Miscellaneous Expenses, are such expenditures ; and their aggregate for 
the last financial year, exclusive of income from the fund for support of 
Secretaries and Treasurer, was $12,806 92, or about thirteen per cent, on 
the whole amount received into the treasury within the same time. It must 
not be inferred, however, that this has been the average per centage of ex- 
penses incurred at home in other years, nor that it will be the average in 
any number of years to come, even should expenditures be governed by 
the same general rules. z'Vgents, for example, cannot deliver their accounts 
to the Treasurer so that his reports will uniformly show the exact annual 
cost of their services; and no amount of care can secure uniformity, from 
year to year, in such items as most of those which are grouped under the 
head of Miscellaneous Expenses. The rule is, to make the closest esti- 
mate practicable of the expenditures of each year, several weeks before its 

20 Thirty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the Board. [May, 

commencement, and to include in its accounts all the expenses pertaining 
to its transactions. The Treasurer's report may be consulted, therefore, as 
one of the safest guides in deterrnining the probable amount of expei\di- 
tures in each succeeding year, provided there be no change in the policy by 
which they are regulated. 

In the year ending April 1, 1848, the sum paid for Agencies, including the 
travelling expenses of returned missionaries while in this country, and of the 
Home Secretary, was $6,150; but the salaries of eight agents, now in the 
employ of the Union, with an average of $120 to each, and an allowance of 
$'440 to returned missionaries and the Secretaries, for travelling expenses, 
will swell the cost of Agencies the present year to $6,500. Publications, 
including the annual report, amounted last year to $520 64 ; and, governed 
by the same policy, this department will cost no less the current year. In 
the Secretaries' and Treasurer's Departments the net expenditure of last 
year was $3,233 33 ; from which $133 33, a balance paid one of the Secre- 
taries on account of the previous year, may be deducted. The Miscella- 
neous Expenses of last year, including rent, postage, interest, etc., were 
$2,902 95; but what is saved in items which may not recur the present 
year, will probably be balanced by others not now foreseen. So long, 
therefore, as the present policy continues to prevail in home operations, and 
liabilities requiring an equal amount of yearly interest remain uncancelled, 
the annual home expenditure cannot be less than $13,000. 

The question may now be considered. What changes should be made in 
the policy by which the home operations of the Union are directed ? — It 
is conceded that no more of what is received into the treasury should be 
used at home than is necessary to make the Union a competent agent in 
sustaining the missions. But it should be remembered that this work is 
complicated and arduous, involving grave and ever-growing responsibili- 
ties. Sixteen missions, with laborers in the four quarters of the globe, 
striving to evangelize many millions of people, look to the Missionary Union 
for remittances and instructions to meet necessities ordinary and extraordi- 
nary; to furnish which the organization must possess knowledge, minute 
and thorough, of the positive and relative wants of the missions ; and 
ujust, also, maintain in the commercial world a financial credit commensu- 
rate with all its pecuniary liabilities — a thing which no charitable incorpora- 
tion can do in an easier way than mercantile houses engaged in equally ex- 
tensive transactions. It is known that the Union has a financial credit of such 
order that one of the wealthiest banking-houses in the world deems it 
safe to guaranty bills of exchange drawn by your Treasurer, to a large 
amount, with no other security than is found in the integrity and responsi- 
bility of the incorporation ; and such bills, amounting to $31,950, are now 
in London or on their way thither. The fiscal facilities thus provided are 
little less than invaluable. But the protest of a single bill for non-payment, 
from any other than what the bankers might consider a "purely accidental 
cause," would inevitably bring to the Missionary Rooms a requisition for 
additional security, sufficient to cover every dollar which had been drawn 
for ; the consequences of which, on the business operations of the Union, 
might be disastrous. No plea, based on the numerical strength of our peo- 
ple or the glory of our work, could avail with the bankers in averting these 
calamitous results. Weighed in their balances, the institution ia "found 
wanting " — its debts are not paid according to agreement. We will not say 
that the preservation of this financial credit, nor that the perpetuity of the 
Union, even, is essential to the evangelization of the heathen. But we may 
declare that no incorporation, entrusted with such a work and acting for so 
many churches and individuals, can do otherwise than to hold the highest 
degree of financial integrity as an indispensable element in the ability 
with which Us agency is to be performed. 

How, then, are home operations to be conducted so that the financial 
standing of the Union shall be preserved and the missions sustained? 
Would it be possible thus to conduct them by yielding to the views of 

1S48.] Home Expenditures of the Union. 21 

contributors who are known to do the least, according to their ability, for 
the missionary cause ? Or, shall the attempt be made to preserve the pe- 
cuniary safety of the institution, by so restricting its operations, at home and 
abroad, that its outlays shall certainly and easily be brought within its in- 
come? To remove the ignorance and prejudice which may exist, in refer- 
ence to the cause of missions, is a work on which the Board should bestow 
earnest care ; and steadily to guard against improvident expenditure and 
visionary experiments is an imperative duty. But it cannot be any part of 
the province of such an incorporation as the Missionary Union, to conform 
its policy to the dictates of prejudice and ignorance ; nor to be satisfied with 
the conviction that it is doing a " snug and safe business," in giving to a lost 
world the knowledge of eternal life. This was not the way of Him v/ho 
said, " I have a baptism to be baptized with, and how am I straitened till it 
be accomplished ;" nor of that disciple of his who said, "I also labor, striv- 
ing according to his loorking which worketh in me mightily.'''' 

The Missionary Union has no moi-al right habitually to spend more 
money than is paid into its treasury. But if it be proved that the missions 
need $93,000 the present year, and an annual increase of $10,000 for the 
next five years, the Board can do no less than to make the most liberal esti- 
mate of the amount which can be collected from year to year, that a care- 
ful and candid consideration of the facts bearing on the case will allow ; 
and then, in the exercise of unwavering faith in God, annually to cover its 
estimate with its appropriations — diligently using such scriptural means as 
may be within its reach to bring to the treasury a yearly income that shall 
equal the whole sum appropriated. If this policy be objected to, on the 
ground that it involves uncertainties not compatible with the high financial 
standing contended for, it should be remembered that all human aflfairs are 
subject to vicissitudes. The contributors of missionary funds, and the mis- 
sionaries on whom they are exi)ended, experience painful reverses; and 
it cannot be for an organization standing between the contributors and the 
missions, as agent of both, to suppose Uiat it has nothing to do in filling 
" up that which is behind of the afliictions of Christ." The truth should be 
had in remembrance, also, that an enterprising spirit has little less to do 
with success in prosecuting the work of missions, than with great achieve- 
ments in human pursuits. That spirit, subdued and controlled by an abid- 
ing trust in Him whom they serve, without whom they can do nothing, but 
through whom they may do all things, will do more to enable an associa- 
tion of missionary men to preserve their credit and sustain the missions, 
than any number of purely precautionary measures. Every additional mis- 
sionary sent to the heathen is to be regarded as a bond, given by another 
circle of relatives and personal friends, for increased interest in the mis- 
sionary cause ; and the missions, through the reports which they send home 
of their conflicts and triumphs, are the most influential agents known in the 
work of supplying the treasury. It is for the Union, therefore, to pursue a 
policy in its home operations which shall prove, before all men, that its 
works are conceived and executed under the influence of ever deepening 
confidence in its cause and in God. 

In the application of these principles, to the diflferent classes of home ex- 
])enditures, it may be j)rui)er to say, that the expenses of the Missionary 
Rooms, including the salary of the present Treasurer, were last year no 
more than $345 41 additional to what was paid in 1845, — when a Commit- 
tee appointed by the Triennial Convention, of which the chairman of your 
Board was a member, reported them, after patient investigation, to be "rea- 
sonable and proper." But it has long been acknowledged that the Rooms 
themselves, in number and arrangement, are not adapted to the most eco- 
nomical performance of the business for which they are used. The mis- 
sionary library too, connected with them, should contain every work which 
gives light on any department of the missionary enterprise ; and tlie mis- 
sionary museum should be such a collection of interesting objects, gathered 
from all our missionary fields, as would illustrate the character and con- 

22 Thirty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the Board. [May, 

dition of the people whom the missions are evangelizing. With the ad- 
ditional expense of $350 per year, such improvements in the rooms, library 
and museum, as are needed, might be secured. 

Among the Miscellaneous Expenses of last year was this item, — "Interest 
on money borrowed, $869 83." The only way to prevent the annual repe- 
tition of a similar charge, is to provide the treasury with money as fast as it 
is needed for current uses, and to pay the " balance for which the Union is 
in debt, — $29,295 73." The manner in which these liabilities were incur- 
red, and the reasons which induced the Treasurer to show their balance in 
his reports, were stated in the last annual report of the Executive Com- 
mittee. But these things will be forgotten, and statements of balances 
against the treasury will be regarded as confessions of insolvency for their 
amount. It should be the fixed policy of the Board, therefore, to cancel the 
balance, for which the Union is now in debt, as fast as it can be done with- 
out violence to other operations : and it is respectfully suggested, for con- 
sideration, that it might be wise for the Board to apply to that object the 
proceeds of the sale of the "Grand Rapids' Land," and a specific per cent- 
age on all legacies paid into the treasury and not otherwise designated by 
the legators. The home expenditures will thus be reduced, the financial 
credit of the Union strengthened, and living contributors know that their 
donations are used in current operations. Were this plan of liquidation to 
be adopted, it should not be received as a precedent for accumulating a 
fund to prevent pecuniary embarrassment after the present dqbt is paid ; 
for, however desirable it might be to have such a fund, as a safety measure, 
the time cannot be very near in which money given to the treasury will be 
worth more to the cause of God invested at home, on the usual rates of in- 
terest, than judiciously expended in sustaining the missions; and the policy 
of thus expending all that is collected cannot necessarily lead to the accu-^ 
mulation of another debt, if it be regarded as a settled principle that the 
Executive Committee make every annual deficiency one of the items to be 
covered by a specific appropriation the year next ensuing. 

In the publication of the Annual Reports of the Union, the rule should be 
to circulate the largest number likely to find readers. Last year the de- 
mand so far exceeded the supply that an abstract, in an edition of 3,000 
copies, was printed when it was too late to increase the number of the 
entire report. The plan of the Board, in placing the Magazine and Mace- 
donian under the editorial care of the Secretaries, has been in operation 
since January, 1847; which plan, together with discontinuing the gratui- 
tous distribution of the former, will save the treasury from much expense. 
The course pursued of separating the business aflTairs of the periodicals 
from the Missionary Rooms brings the smallest risk to the Union, and the 
least labor to those in its employ; and it maybe that it is better adapted 
than any other to make these publications influential agents in the great 
work of missions. But if, after strict and careful comparison of the relative 
advantages and disadvantages of different plans, it were to appear that some 
other mode of publication would increase the influence of either or both 
periodicals, on the missionary cause, it ought to be adopted as soon as ex- 
isting contracts will permit. Such a comparison might be made and sub- 
mitted to the Board at their next annual meeting. The Board may occa- 
sionally have at their disposal manuscripts, the publication and widest cir- 
culation of which, in the form of books or iracts, would be of great and 
permanent service to the enterprise of missions. The principles on which 
such manuscripts should be disposed of and published, might be defined 
and presented for consideration at the same meeting. 

It has been stated that the Agency Department, as now filled, will prob- 
ably cost $6,500 a year,— an amount equal tQ one half of all the home ex- 
penditures of the Union. But shall returned Missionaries and the Secre- 
taries travel less? or ought a smaller number than eight agents to be em- 
ployed ? This number might be reduced should the immediate productive- 
ness of every district occupied by an agent be the standiard by whjph to try 

1848.] Home Eacpenditures of the Union. 23 

the question of his continuance; and the services of the entire corps might 
be dispensed with, were the question to be considered solely in view of 
wliat ought to be done without their aid. But the wisest among the practi- 
cal men who conduct other pursuits, deem it profitable to expend large 
sums with reference to remote results ; and seldom do they hesitate to em- 
ploy distinct agencies of their own, when important enterprises are to be 
achieved. The people in the north-western States are rapidly acquiring 
ability to make large contributions to the foreign missionary cause ; and 
the number of churches which need no agents to help them in doinf their 
part of the missionary work, is gradually increasing in other States; but is 
it for a Missionary Board to save the expense of ploughing and sow- 
ing, by waiting for a harvest without doing either? or, is it for such a 
Board to take its own reapers out of fields already ripe, any faster than 
the harvest ivill be gathered witlwut their aid"} The contributors, then, are 
the persons to diminish the number of agents, by doing the work season- 
ably and thoroughly without their aid ; and no class of men will be more 
grateful to learn that agents are no longer needed, than the agents them- 

" There is that scattereth and yet increaseth, — there is that withholdeth 
more than is meet, but it tendeth to poverty," — are divine maxims which 
have instruction for Christian institutions no less than for individual Chris- 
tians ; and for such institutions in all places and in every service. The 
tendency of withholding from home operations the full number of labor- 
ers required to do the work, or of depriving them of an equitable remu- 
neration for labor performed, is to render the organization incapable of 
furnishing permanent supplies to the missions, which shall be proportionate 
to their necessities. The drafts made on the treasury for the support of 
a sufiicient number of home laborers, may seem large.. But it should be re- 
membered that the payment of their salaries, with the means furnished to 
enable them to do their work, constitutes the entire cost of the organization 
to the contributors. Such items of expenditure as interest, discount freio^ht 
and postage, which amounted last year to $1,561 64 out of f 12,806 92, are 
to be regarded as drafts made on the treasury on account of contributors and 
the missions. Exclusive of income from the fund for support of Secretaries 
and Treasurer, the whole expense of the organization for the last year was, 
therefore, a fraction more than eleven per cent, on the whole amount receiv- 
ed and expended. But were the annual home expenditures to be increased 
for the next five years, their average per centage on the whole sum collect- 
ed and disbursed might be diminished ; not by unreasonably restricting 
the number or compensation of home laborers, but by increasing the pro- 
ductiveness of the home field. This mode of reducing the per cen'tage may 
be acted on, and with safety, until the time come in which the vvork of 
agents shall be performed in all the churches by pastors and laymen ; and 
nothing remain for the Union, in its home operations, but to perform a 
service at its Missionary Rooms, the whole annual expense of which may 
not exceed five thousand dollars. 

In behalf of the Executive Committee. 

Edw. Bright, Jr., Cor. Sec. Home Dep. 

'J'he Committee on Home Expenses ask leave to present the following 
report : — " 

This department requires the most careful and diligent cultivation. 
Whatever we judiciously expend upon it, is like the investments made* 
upon dams, races and other arrangements for procuring the requisite power 
to propel hydraulic machinery. Without a vigorously prosecuted system 
of home agencies, the wheels of our machinery would soon stand still. 

In saying this, we speak of what will be, and not of what ought to Le. If 
a consistent and energetic piety pervaded our churches ; if they fully'car- 
ried out the vow of supreme consecration to God on which they commenc- 
ed the Christian race; and if they duly understood and acted upon the final 


24 Thirty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the Board. [May, 

commission of our risen Lord, to go into all the world and preach the gos- 
pel to every creature ; — the spontaneous flow into our treasury would, no 
doubt, be sufficient to meet all demands upon it. We should in that case 
have rather to restrain the ofl^erings of the people, than to urge them to the 
doing of what they are now so sadly inclined to neglect. How long shall it 
be, ere our brethren generally shall wholly give themvselves unto the Lord 
and unto the church by the will of God? At present we know that their 
interest in missions is not such as to ensure a spontaneous flow of money 
to the treasury, in sufficient amounts to meet the demands which the provi- 
dence of God has imposed upon our Board. 

As practical men, therefore, who feel ourselves called to take things as 
they are and not as they ought to be, we cannot see wherein the past ex- 
penses of the Executive Committee, or the future policy as detailed in their 
report on Home Expenditures, could be materially altered or improved. 
The aggregate of these expenditures the past year, exclusive of the income 
of the Secretary fund, was $12,806 92, or about 13 percent. This we 
deem a very moderate per centage as compared with the per centage in 
other Societies, or even with that of this Society in previous years. 

It is proper that the Committee should state on this point, as the churches 
are liable to misjudge or to be imposed upon, that the amounts paid in the 
form of salaries for doing the business of the organization, are barely suffi- 
cient to sustain our Secretaries in their self-denying and arduous labors. 
If we were to recommend any change, it would Ije on the side of increase 
rather than of diminution. 

It seems to your Committee, also, that the payment of $6,150 on agents 
and on the travelling expenses of returned missionaries, is moderate as com- 
pared with the extent of our operations. We ought to expect an increase 
rather than a diminution of this amount in future years. But our esti- 
mates for the time to come must necessarily be mere approximations to the 
actual demands upon our treasury for home operations, because we are ex- 
posed to various fluctuations and contingencies which no human sagacity 
can foresee. 

The Committee are not prepared to recommend any material changes in 
the policy which the Executive Committee has marked out for itself in tinje 
to come. We deem it indispensable to take all possible measures to i)re- 
serve our financial credit abroad. A protested bill would not only embar- 
rass our operations, but by subjecting us to the demand for security from 
the commercial houses abroad through whom we make our transmissions 
to India, would expose us to additional expense, besides degrading us in 
the view of the commercial world. What American Baptist would not feel 
himself mortified by such an event? what one would not pay liberally, and 
according to his means, to avoid it? 

We cannot sufficiently commend the policy of the Executive, therefore, 
in charging bills when they are drawn, to the actual liabilities of the 
Union, instead of waiting till the time of payment before the charge is 
made. The liability then exists in fact, though it may be some months be- 
fore payment is demanded. By taking into account all these liabilities, it 
appears the Union is now in debt to the amount of $29,295 73. 

Two particulars are suggested by the Executive Committee in their 
policy for providing for this demand ; first, that we apply to its liquidation 
the {)roceeds of the sale of the Grand Rapids property, which we under- 
stand amount to $13,500; and, second, that we approiniate to this object 
a certain per centage on legacies not otherwise provided for. Your Com- 
mittee can see nothing to militate against the wisdom of such a suggestion, 
and would, therefore, recommend that it be the future policy of the Union, 
under such limitations and modifications as the Executive Committee may 
deem advisable. 

It seems that there was a deficiency last year in meeting demands for the 
published reports of the Union. We think that we should in future pro- 
vide against this by increasing the number of copies issued, and that men- 

18 48. J Home ExpendUures of the Union. 25 

sures should be taken rather to increase than curtail the reading of our 
documents. We are the servants of the northern Baptist public, to whom 
we are bound to make report of what we do, and whose interest in the cause 
of missions will, probably, be as much promoted by a knowledge of our do- 
ings and the general course of events in our history, as by any other means. 
We will now conclude our report with a few general remarks on the 
subject of home policy and expenditure. 

1. The advantages of this ex|)enditure must not be estimated solely by 
the amount brought into our treasury during any given year. The intelli- 
gence which it tends to diffuse among our churches on the subject of mis- 
sions, the sense of personal obligation to do something towards preaching 
the gospel to every creature which it nourishes among them, the missionary 
spirit which it contributes to diffuse in extensive regions of our country and 
in the Canadas, which have hitherto failed of duly coming up to the help 
of the Lord against the mighty, and the improvement of piety in our 
churches which accrues from it, are all parts of this home work and ex- 
j)enditure, over and above the simple amount brought into the treasurj'. 
Let any one compare the state of our churches now with what it was before 
we embarked in the missionary enterprise, and he will see that the fruits of 
our labors are quite as propitious and abundant at home as on foreign lands. 
Your Committee would, therefore, recommend that secretaries, agents and 
all who are engaged in doing service for the Union, make it an object of 
their special concern and continual prayer, not merely to act in the specific 
business committed to their hands, but by all means and in every consistent 
way to diffuse around them, in families, communities, congregations and 
throughout the country, a spirit of holiness and love, that thus they may in- 
cidentally do the very thing at home which they are laboring to procure the 
resources to enable others to do abroad. 

2. We think there should be both a gradual increase of our home ex- 
penditure, and, at the same time, a diminution of the per ceutage of that 
expenditure. We cannot increase our income without increasing this 
class of outgoes. It is visionary to expect otherwise. There are vast 
sections of our country that might be made to yield respectable amounts to 
our treasury, if they were duly cultivated by judicious agents; and the ad- 
vantage of doing it would be greater, if possible, to them than to the hea- 
then. He that watereth shall be himself watered. 

But while we increase the number of our agents, we should urge the 
necessity of independent action in the churches, that they may make out 
their benefactions without cost to the Board. There is evidently a gradual 
increase in the number who act in this manner; and the greater the amount 
obtained in this way, the more prolific will be our home labors, and thus 
the per centage of this class of expenditure will be diminished. 

3. We conclude with recommending the following resolutions : — 
Resolved, That the Executive Committee be directed to institute an in- 
quiry into the relative expense and advantages of issuing the periodicals 
of the Board through individual publishers, or by the direct agency of the 
Executive Committee ; and also to inquire what advantages or disadvan- 
tages might accrue from the preparation and publication of missionary 
books under the control and direction of the Board ; and to report fully at 
the next annual meeting. 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee be authorized to make such al- 
terations as they may deem necessary for their operations in the rooms, 
and for the increase and arrangement of library and cabinet of missionary 
curiosities, provided the additional expense shall not exceed $350. 
All whicli is respectfully submitted. 

Pharcellus Church, Chairman. 

The whole report was then adopted and ordered to be printed. 
The Committee on the Wants of the Treasury reported through 
Rev. J. N. Granger, chairman. 

26 Thirty -Fourth Annual Meeting of the Board. [May, 


The treasury of the Missionary Union needs money to pay the ex|)enses 
of its home and foreign operations as fast as they are incurred. Should 
their amount, as esriniated in reports just made to the Board, be deemed 
no larger than is required for the successful prosecution of the missionary 
work, $111,500 will be needed the present fiscal year; — $93,000 for the mis- 
sions, $13,500 for home expenditure, and $5,000 to cancel existing liabilities. 

These are not the sums now appropriated to these objects. Adopting a 
schedule of appropriations in January last, when so large a deficiency re- 
mained to be provided for before April 1, 1848, the Committee have been 
making expenditures, thus far in the present year, on the basis of an in- 
come of $90,000 from all sources. But in forming this schedule the in- 
quiry was not. What amounts will sufiice to place the missions in good 
condition, and enable them to do their work to the best advantage .' so 
much as. Which of them can forego with least injury their needed 
supplies ? The Committee wish now, therefore, to bring before the Board 
the wants of the treasury as they appear when measured by the necessities 
of the work in which the money is to be expended, — with the hope that 
supplies will be furnished equal to its manifest and imperative demands. 

The subject, in importance and perhaps in difficulties, is second to none 
likely to come within the deliberations of the present meetings; for the 
desideratum of our missionary operations is a well supplied treasury. 
The Committee have never been perplexed to know how and where money 
entrusted to them might be profitably expended. Their most painful anxiety 
and most laborious toil have been in balancing the claims of many stations, 
when each needed what was to be divided among several. The missions 
have not suffered from want of work, nor from the perpetual withhold- 
ing of the Spirit's influences; but because men and means were not pro- 
vided to do the work which God had made ready, and in the doing of which 
he waited to bless them. And more is involved in the subject, now sub- 
mitted to the Board, than the amount to be raised within a single financial 
year. Reasons which now claim an increased expenditure, will require 
additional thousands next year, — and onward from year to year. What, 
then, is the largest sum which may be made the basis of appropriations, dur- 
ing the present year, with the expectation that the advanced schedule will be sus- 
tained from year to year ? 

Among the considerations in view of which this question should be an- 
swered, are the number and pecuniary ability of the people from whom 
contributions are to be sought. How much can they afford to give to the 
cause of foreign missions ? — In the sixteen States and Territories known 
as the home field of the Missionary Union, there are not far from 3,500 
Baptist churches, with 285,000 members ; and, after deducting the sums 
received from Government, coordinate Societies, Oflicers' Fund, Magazine, 
in legacies, donations from Canada and other places not included in the 
above field, there was paid into the treasury last year, $77,473 46,* — an 

* Of this amount there 

was received from 


with 300 churches, 

and 21,337 members, 

,g5,158 23 

Wew Hampshire 

, " 101 " 

" 9,266 


2,127 67 


" 110 " 

" 8,811 


2,003 33 


" 233 

" 29,534 


21,612 07 


" 109 

" 16,061 


4,048 45 

Khode Island, 

" 47 " 

" 7,188 


4,413 23 

New York, 

" 811 

" 85,133 


22,013 13 

JNew Jersey,. 

" 86 

" 11,637 


2,425 77 



" 349 


200 00 


" 289 

" 27,115 


. 4,853 39 


" 444 

" 24,497 


5,119 09 


" 392 

" 18,492 


834 50 


" 301 

" 12,394 

696 49 


" 163 " 

" 8,632 




" 30 " 

" 2,326 


146 75 


" 38 



15 49 

1848.J Wu)tis of the Treasury. 27 

average of about twenty-five dollars to each church and of twenty-seven 
cents to each member. But it has been ascertained, from the most reliable 
data within our reach, that thirty individuals, the average of whose contri- 
butions was $123 each, and individtials in ten churches, whose donations 
were an average of nearly $1,670 to each church and of $4 to each mem- 
ber, gave more than one fourth of the amount of donations paid into the 
treasiury last year. The balance of the second fourth came from individuals 
in sixty other churches, the average of whose contributions was $310 to 
each cliurch and $1 to each member. Including the contributions of such 
persons as are not members of churches, and of two hundred individuals 
who gave an average of $10 each, without designating their membership, 
the third fourth came from one hundred and thirty churches, each paying 
$100 or upwards, and averaging fifty cents to each of their members. 
/^ Three fourths of the whole amount of donations paid into the treasury 
/ last year, then, came from individuals not members of churches, two hun- 
dred and thirty persons supposed to belong to churches not named, and 
about two hundred churches embracing less than fifty thousand members. 
Every member of a few of these churches contributes annually, at least, to 
your treasury ; but it is not believed that two thirds of all the members 
did so last year. So much of the first three fourths as was given by mem- 
bers of our churches may be regarded as an average, therefore, of about 
$1,90 to each contributor. 

The last fourth came from among the remaining 250,000 members of, 
perhaps, 3.300 churches. Shall we say, a sufficient number gave some- 
thing to make an average for the year of $15 to each contributing cliurch, 
and of twenty cents to each contributing member? Even then the non- 
contributors in our honje field would be two thousand churches and nearly 
one hundred and seventy-five thousand members! And were the whole 
amount of donations to be divided by the whole number of contributors, the 
average would be no more than $50 to each contributing church and sixty- 
seven cents to each contributing member. 

If these statements are sufficiently accurate for the object which has 
induced them, the inquiry may be made. Will the ])ecuniary ability of 
contribidors justify an increase of their donations? Six individuals gave 
enough to make good their own average last year, and to raise the " two 
n)ites," each, of more than six thousand poor widows to the same standard ; 
and may we not believe that God will continue to incline the rich so to 
" give of their abundance" as to make good the average of all such 
contributors as cannot afford to give the amount of it — even if it be 
doubled ? 

But is the pecuniary ability of non-contributors so much less than that 
of their brethren as to leave no ho|)e of enlarging the receipts by multiply- 
ing the number of donors? In the six north-western States and Territories 
there are 67,530 members of Baptist churches ; and the amount paid last 
year into the treasury from that part of our field was $8,924 77, — which, 
reducing the average on the whole field no more than one half, shows that 
the entire number of non-contributors in the north-western section falls 
short o^ forty-two thousand. Where, then, are the remaining 133,000? 
There is scarcely one of the Eastern and Middle States in which non- 
contributors do not out-number contributors; in some of these States the 
disproportion is as three to one ; and among those who give nothing 
are to be classed, for the year past, many wealthy members and some 
large and rich churches. Can there be any doubt as to the -pecuniai-y ability 
of our people greatly to increase their offijrings, so long as the average to 
each contribidor does not exceed sixty-seven cents, for a year, and two out 
of every three give nothing? 

But, admitting that the needful pecuniary ability exists, the desired en- 
largement should be graduated in all respects by the just claims of our 
missionary operations on the churches. How much, then, ought the enter- 
prise of foreign missions to receive from the home field of the Union ? 

28 Thirty -Fourth Annual Meeting of the Board. May, 

If Christ Jesus was none other than " God manifest in the flesh," if he did 
indeed allow himself to be "crucified and slain," if he did say to his fol- 
lowers, " Go je into all the world and preach the gospel to every creature," 
those who call themselves disciples of Christ are bound to the mission- 
ary enterprise by obligations as absolute and complete, as are the relations 
which they sustain to him who is their Prophet, Redeemer, Lord; and if 
these obligations are not to be discharged by churches planted in such a 
field, existing at such a time, entrusted with such means, and having such 
missions, as are oiu's, — of whom, it might be asked, may Jesus Christ expect 
obedience to his last command ? and by whom shall the light of his cross 
be conveyed to the lands "of the shadow of death?" 

The estimated number of people in heathen lands noiv dependent for 
evangelization on our missions, is not less than twenty-five millions. Are 
these millions — more in number than the population of these United 
States — to be taught the doctrines of Christ? Are schools and books and 
an instructed ministry — the enduring elements of a Christian civilization 
— to be given them ? Converts recently won from superstitions, whose vo- 
cation it is to impoverish and brutalize their victims, cannot do such things; 
nor can the missions find other agencies within their fields to share the 
work. By these missions, therefore, the same work is wrought, in heathen 
tribes and nations, which the entire fraternity of Christian institutions are 
doing for the illiterate and depraved among ourselves. The truth of this 
declaration is illustrated in the report "On Foreign Expenditures of 
the Union," and in the history of every successful mission. That to the Ka- 
rens, for example, has been in existence less than twenty years. Ko Thah- 
byu, the first convert, was baptized in ]828; and at the time of baptism 
was almost the only individual of his race known to the Bin-man Mission. 
The Karens were a debased people ; in their own words, " a nation most 
debased among the debased ; having neither head nor ear; sons of the 
forest, a nation of slaves, a people of the deepest poverty; divided in every 
direction, at the sources of the waters and in the glens above them." And 
what has been wrought? Missionaries have given them the gcs|)el, a writ- 
ten language, the New Testament and other portions of the word of God ; 
have planted churches, established schools, founded Christian villages in 
their jungles; and have educated preachers from among the ten thousand 
converts who confess the power of the Son of God. But, with all that 
has hith(!rto been wrought, we have only laid the foundation. The three 
million Karens, the hill tribes and the tribes of the plains, are to be 
evangelized and blessed with the institutions of Christian civilization; 
and while this great work is progressing among them, other missions ask to 
be sustained in doing the same work for other tribes and tiations embracing 
almost ten times as many more souls. The foreign missionary cause is, 
therefore, preeminent in the extent of its claims on the contributions of 
the members of our churches, if the amount of labor to be bestowed has 
any connection with the amount of work to be done. 

But this question of duty cannot be separated from the relations which 
Christians at home bear to the missions, and to the millions for whose sal- 
vation they labor. Connected with the missions are "men that have hazard- 
ed their lives tor the name of om* Lord Jesus Christ;" men to whom more 
than a hundred native preachers and feeble churches look for counsel and 
succor; men frotn whom many millions of deathless souls wait to hear of 
the way, the truth, the life. How came these men into positions so fearful 
and glorious ? The pioneer missionary was in India before it was known 
that one had gone there for our churches to sustain. The event was hailed 
as a signal from God, that the time had come for another Christian denomi- 
nation to do their part in the work of preaching the unsearchable riches of 
Christ to the far off heathen, — and Judson was adopted as our missionary. 
By the same hand, more than twenty years after, Oncken was as unexpect- 
edly given us with Germany for his missionary field. But every other or- 
daiop.d missionary supported by our people, went to his labor with their 

1848.] Wajits of the Treasury. 29 

sanction, and carrying with liini the pledges of their succor. The relations 
existing between missionaries thus provided and sent forth and their 
brethren at home, give an impressiveness to the claims of the missions 
which makes it eminently perilous to disregard their cries for help. 

But more is involved, in determining what ought to be done, than even 
such considerations as have been named. The author of, perhaps, the 
most pungent and powerful appeal* made for the cause of foreign mis- 
sions in modern times, insists that it is the great and indispensable work 
of Christians of this generation to preach the gospel to the people of this 
generation ; — because, if Christians now on earth make it their chief object 
to prepare a subsequent generation to convert the world, those thus pre- 
pared, following the examf)le rather than the precepts of their teachers, 
will be likely to commit the work to their children. Hut should it be 
otherwise, the masses of the generation which we are imder the highest 
obligation to evangelize will be left to die without knowing the way of re- 
conciliation to God, — and that, too, while "the harvest of the earth is ripe," 
and hundreds of thousands, who call themselves stewards of God, hold in 
their hands the last command of their Lord, and carry in their hearts the 
proofs of his power to " save to the uttermost." Within the week devoted 
tt) these missionary meetings nearly half a million will pass from heathen 
lands into eternity ; and week after week will pay the same mighty tribute, 
until every individual of all the millions of this generation is in heaven or 
hell. What, then, ought the cause of foreign missions to receive from the 
home field of our Union ? what number of missionaries .-' what amount of 
prayerful, self-denying effort ? 

Finally, if it be admitted that the ability and the obligations are such as 
to call lor the proposed enlargement of our foreign missionary resources, 
the increased expenditure must moreover be warranted by the available and 
reliable agencies to be employed in the collection of funds. What, then, 
are the means through which this work may be accomplished ? 

The Union publishes two monthly periodicals; employs eight collecting 
agents; has one secretary whose titue is occupied in labors connected with 
supplying the treasury ; and avails itself of the occasional aid of return- 
ed missionaries. But it is not probable that this number of individuals 
will visit more than 1,200 churches within any year. The remaining 2,300 
churches may be informed of the progress and necessities of the missions 
through the correspondence and publications of the Board ; but, however 
great the value of information thus given when combined with timely and 
thorough individual effort, it cannot alone be relied upon to induce every 
member of every church to make annual contributions that shall be ^'■according 
to his ability." With the knowledge of what is needed, truer conceptions 
must he formed of the nature and extent of Christian stewardship, and sys- 
tems for the collection of funds must be devised and faithfully executed. 
By whom, and how, shall this work be wrought? 

It might be impracticable to do the work in all churches, through the 
agency of the same class of individuals and in the same way. But how- 
ever diversified may be the plans of operation, the Missionary Union has 
no moral right to seek the cooperation of any person by placing motives 
before him other than such as God ivitl approve ; nor can the Union hope to 
receive the amount required to sustain the missions, unless such motives are 
placed at the best time and in the best way before the minds of all the mem- 
bers of the churches. The men by whom this can be done more effectually 
than by all the distinctagencies of the Union combined, are the 2,500 ;?as<ors 
of oiu- churches ; and nofacthascotne to our knowledge within the past year 
fraught with richer hope to the missionary cause, than that the number of 
missionary pastors is increasing. As their number is multiplied, mission- 
ary knowledge will be diffused; the monthly concert for prayer will gath- 
er interest and power; the number of cheerful and permanent contributors 

* Dibble's " Thoughts on Missions.-' 

30 l^kirty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the Board. [May, 

will be enlarged; and the treasury will have an income that shall more 
perfectly correspond with the ability of the churches and the just claims of 
the missions. As to the methods of securing the cooperation of missionary 
pastors, if the influence of the last anniversary be consulted, it may be 
doubted whether the Union can use means more effective than spiritual 
and purely missionary anniversaries, the reports of which shall be spread 
throughout the land. 

With this statement of facts and considerations relating to the pecuniary 
ability of our |)eople, the claims of their foreign missions, and the agencies 
by which the income of their treasury may be augmented, we submit the 
inquiry. What is the largest sum which may be made the basis of our ap- 
propriations in the year ending April 1, ]849, with the expectation that the 
advanced schedule of the same shall be sustained from year to year? 
By order of the Executive Committee, 

Edvt. Bright, Jr., Cor. Sec. Home Dep. 

The Committee to whom was referred the paper from the Executive Com- 
mittee on the Wants of the Treasury for the year ending April 1, 1841), 
respectfully present the following report: — 

The Committee are of the opinion that the facts and principles em- 
bodied in this report demand the most serious consideration of the Board 
and of the Union. 

The report states that the amount needed the present fiscal year ia 
$111,500; $93,000 for the missions, $13,500 for home expenditure, and 
$5,000 towards cancelling existing liabilities. The report then proceeds to 
discuss the practicability, duty, and method of raising this sum. 

Your Conmiittee have been deeply impressed with the subject as thus 
treated. They are desirous that it be laid before the Union. They ac- 
cordingly recommend that the report be adopted ; and also that the follow- 
ing resolutions be adopted by the Board, and, with the report, be referred 
to the Union, with the recommendation that they be made the special 
order of the day for the forenoon of Friday next. 

The first resolution, based upon the first section of the report, is as 
follows: — 

Resolved, That the pecuniary ability of those on whom our missions may 
reasonably depend for support, is sufficient to meet all their necessities. 
The second resolution, l)ased upon the second section, is as follows:— 
Resolved, That our people are under obligations the most imperative and 
sacred, to give to their missions the men and money which they need. 

The third resolution, based in the same way upon the corresponding 
part of the report, is as follows : — 

Resolved, That the most successful and reliable agency in the home work 
of foreign missions, is the personal and permanent example and coopera- 
tion of the pastors of the churches ; and that with such example and coop- 
eration the missions will receive the men and money they need. 
All which is respectfully submitted. 

J. N. Granger, "l 

J. S. Backus, | 

M. G. Clarke, } Committee. 

Henry V. Jones, | 

Albert Day, ) 

The resolutions and report were adopted and ordered to be print- 
ed, and the subject directed to be presented to the Union for its 
special consideration on Friday morning. 

The Committee on the Foreign Expenditures of the Union, &c., 
reported through Rev. F. Wayland, U. D., chairman. The report 
was adopted and ordered to be printed. 

1848.] Foreign Expenditures of the Union. 31 


The foreign expenditures of the Union are for missionaries, including 
reinforcements ; native preachers and assistants ; schools ; pubhcations ; 
and miscellanies, ordinary and special. 

I. Missionaries. — Expenses for missionaries already at their places of 
labor, are for their personal support and employment. Personal support 
includes salaries, rents or repair and wear of dwellings, ordinary expenses 
of sickness, postage, and by usage, freight. Salaries of missionaries, which 
are graduated in different countries according to the supposed necessary 
cost of living, average $375 each individual, male and female, or $750 a 
mission family, per annum. The average cost of a dwelling-house may be 
set at $600. Supposing a house to last twenty years, or in other words to 
depreciate $30 annually, and allowing $20 annually for repairs, the annual 
cost on dwellings owned by the Union is $50 each. A few houses are 
rented, but the number is too small to affect the average materially. The 
other items of sup|)ort, together with expenses incident to missionary 
employment of even the simplest kinds, cannot be reasonably rated at less 
than $100 per an. each household, making an aggregate of $900 per an. for 
the support and employment of each mission family, and an annual expen- 
diture for 100 missionaries or fifty mission families of $45,000. 100 mis- 
sionaries, male and female, are in connexion with the Union ;* but five of 
these are on reduced allowances in this country, and seven are single fe- 
males or widows; so that the present expenditine for support and employ- 
ment may be put at $42,000. To this sum ($42,000) we are to add the 
amount requisite for sending out additional missionaries, or reinforcements. 
Supposing that five mission families be sent to foreign stations within the 
current year, besides a single missionary to one of the Indian stations ; — and 
we make this supposition because so many, at least, are novv waiting or 
desirous to be sent ; — there will be needed for each family, to provide out- 
fit and contingencies, passage, dwelling-house (first cost), means of prepara- 
tion for labor, and salary from time of arrival, $2000 : and for the single 
missionary to be appointed to an Indian station, $500; — making an addi- 
tion of $10,500, and an aggregate for missionaries, of $52,500. 

In this department of expenditure belong also, we think, expenses inci- 
dent to the return of missionaries to this country for health, and their 
second passage outward. Regarded simply as a pecuniary arrangement, 
and witiiout respect to the claims of justice, humanity and Christian love, — 
it is the least expensive and most expeditious method of sustaining, not 
to say reinforcing the missions, to renew the strength of missionaries ex- 
hausted by sickness and toil, and thus double the term of missionary 
life; — the second term more valuable, it may be, than the first; — rather 
than within the same period to send twice the number of missionary labor- 
ers at a third increase of expense, yet without a corres[)ondent increase of 
efficiency. The very heavy expensiveness of home passages, which is in- 
curred in some instances, is burdensome ; but this could be abated by the 
adoption of a system authorizing missionaries after a ten years' service to 
avail themselves of favorable opportunities to return, rather than to abide in 
the field to the last point of endurance and until removal must be effected, 
however unpro})itious the circumstances and at whatever charge. 

Supposing that two mission families on an average are thus compelled 
to return from year to year, the extra expense for both home and out- 
ward passages may be estimated, in consideration of the reduction of sala- 

* In this enumeration we include Mr. and Mrs. Day, Mr. and Mrs. Van Husen and 
Mrs. ("rocker; also, in the Indian Missions, Mrs. J. Kelly Jones and Mr. Cameron ; but 
not Mr. and Mrs. Warren, of Tonawanda station, who are more directly in charge of the 
JNew York Baptist .State Convention, nor Mr. and Mrs. Osgood, who are now in the 
home field. Mrs. Brown, Mr. and Mrs. Vinton and Mr. and Mrs. Wade are considered 
as still connected with their stations abroad. 

32 Thirty -Fourth Animal Meeting of the Board. [May, 

ries for the time being, at $1,500. On the other hand, the number of mis- 
sionaries is subject to continual reduction from removals by death or other 
cause. The average term of missionary service has been scarcely fifteen 
years. Suppose that three mission families are thus removed year by year, 
and we balance by a correspondent diminution in salaries the extra expense 
of home passages ; leaving the aggregate charge for missionaries and re- 
inforcements the year ending April 1, 1849, $52,500, as before. 

W. JVative preachers and assistants. — In Gerniany fifteen native preachers 
are employed, at an average expense each, including ordinary incidentals, 
of $200 ; in France nine, at $250 each; and in the Bassa Mission four, in- 
cluding two colored Americans, at an average of nearly $300 each. In the 
Indian and Asiatic Missions are about 110 native preachers and assistants, 
at an average cost each of $60; making an aggregate expenditure in all the 
missions of $13,000. To this amount an addition of $1,500 might be ad^ 
vantageously made, were the funds at command ; — $500 for Karens and 
Burmans, $500 in China, and $500 in the French Mission ;— making 
$14,500; and a total for missionaries and native laborers of $67,000. 

III. Schools. — These are day or boarding schools, common or theologi- 
cal. The cost of day schools, exclusive of salaries of teachers or superin- 
tendents, and with as liberal support from near residents as in former 
years, may be estimated at $1,000, or an average of $25 each for forty 
schools. The number of boarding schools; including three Indian schools 
supported by Government appropriations, one in Africa, one in Assam, and 
seven Burmese and Karen, of which three are theological ; is twelve, at aa 
average cost of $600, or an aggregate of about $7,000. To this should be 
added $1,000 for repairs and depreciation of school-houses and for books 
and apparatus, &c. ; also $1,000 for the establishing of two additional 
schools, one an Ottawa boarding school under the superintendence of Mr. 
Meeker, and the other for the education of native preachers in France, if 
the operations of that mission be enlarged ; and we have an aggregate ex- 
penditure in this department the current year of $10,000. 

IV. Publications. — The expenses of this department, including transla- 
tion, printing, binding, purchase and distribution of bibles, tracts, school 
books, &c., may be estimated in the gross at $12,000; but they have 
been partly covered in the estimated allowances for missionaries and as- 
sistants. In several of the printing establishments, and those especially 
where the greatest amount of labor has been performed, the avails of "job 
work" have also contributed very largely to reduce the direct annual charge. 
The balance of cost, if we include depreciation and repairs of buildings and 
apparatus in six printing establishments, and purchases in China and else- 
where, may be estimated for the year, exclusively of missionaries' labors, at 

V. Miscellanies. — Under this designation we intend not only incidental 
expenditures not conveniently embraced under either of the preceding 
heads, but some provision for variations which are almost sure to occur be- 
tween estimates however carefully digested and the ascertained results. 
The preceding calculations are based on an extended and minute analysis 
of past expenditures, but they involve a multitude of particulars, and a 
slight departure in several or a large discrepancy in any one might seriously 
aflfect the balance of expenditure and should be guarded against. One or 
more mission families may resume their labors abroad sooner than was con- 
templated, or God may mercifully preserve the lives of his servants beyond 
the average term, or the aid usually afforded by residents to the support 
of assistants and schools may be partially withdrawn, or the expenses of 
the printing department, having for a time little employment fiom others, 
may i'nU more exclusively upon the treasury; and so of many other liabili- 
ties from sickness, fire and flood. 

On the other hand, some j)rovision ought to be made for peculiarly fa- 
vorable o|)portunities which God may open for the advancement of our 
work, and which must be in)proved on the moment or not at all. Even 

1848. J Foreign Ex-pe)iditwes of tlie Union. 33 

the ordinary progress of our enterprise demands some provision of this 
kind. It does not move with observation and by sudden and huge strides, 
at the beginning or the ending of a year; but like the blade, which groweth 
up we know not how. Experience abundantly confirms this view, shewing 
the necessity if we would be safe from continual and painful embarrass- 
ment, of providing for miscellanies, including unforeseen contingencies, a 
sum not less than $13,000.* 

To recapitulate. — The several departments of expenditure require for 
their ordinary support the current year the following appropriations. 

For missionaries and reinforcements, . . . $52,500 

" native preachers and assistants, . . . 14,500 

" schools, day and boarding, .... 30,000 

" publications, (balance of cost,) . . . 3,000 

" miscellanies and unforeseen expenditures, . 13,000 

Total, $93,000 

In the remarks we have made as compared with the schedule adopted 
by the Executive Committee, we have sufficiently indicated the policy 
which, it is thought, ought to be followed the current year, provided there 
be an adequate income. As to the policy to be pursued in succeeding 
years, with the like provision of an adequately increased income, the mani- 
fest necessities of the missions preclude all reasonable doubt. 

Passing by the European and Indian, there are connected with our mis- 
sions in Asia and Africa fifteen stations and about fifty out-stations; — which 
are in charge of thirty-five missionaries, including three in this country or 
on their way,f — an average to each station, — not regarding out-stations, — of 
a fraction more than two missionaries, including preachers, teachers and 
printers. At a few of the stations this average might suffice, were the mis- 
sionaries equally distributed : but so widely diversified are the forms of 
missionary labor and so abundant the demand in each, and so far are the 
stations generally removed from one another, there is a painful insufficiency 
of laborers. The largest body of missionaries is at Maulmain ; hut there, 
virtually, are two stations, belonging to what should be regarded as two 
missions, each embracing two dialects or languages, and embodying for 
each all the varieties of missionary labor, preaching, translating, teaching 
and printing. There is also connected with each division a large popu- 
lation with Christian churches and day and boarding schools, including 
two theological. The Burmese population of Alaulmain amount to 35,000 
or 40,000; while in the Karen section are three large districts, embracing 
each from fifty to 100 hamlets and villages and a population of some tens of 
thousands, scattered over a territory as extended as New England ; besides 
those who come from Burmah Proper. All this furnishes abundant oppor- 
tunity for labor to the resident missionaries, and might profitably engage 
others, if there were not more urgent demands from other places. One 
additional missionary at least is needed in this wide-spread field, beside 
one or more female assistants. At Amherst, Mr. Haswell in the Peguan de- 
partment ought to be speedily supplied with a fellow-laborer; he has waited 
for years. Two missionaries shoidd go to Tavoy to fill the vacated places 
of Messrs. Mason and Wade, one of them to labor for the Tavoy Burmese. 
Two additional missionaries are needed for Akyab, one of them in behalf 
of the Kemmees ; two for Ramree, to reap the harvest of which Mr. Com- 
stock sowed the seed ; one missionary to join Mr. Beecher at Sandoway, 
and one to accompany Mr. Abbott to Rangoon. Two missionaries are still 
needed for Assam, one to preach the gospel around Sibsagar, and one for 

* We place under this head all miscellaneous charges of freight, wharfage, insurance, 
agent in London, forwarding agent's salary, mission postage, and the like, estimated at 
g3,000, as well as the other items above indicated. 

t Mr. Day, Mr. Vinton and Mr. Wade. 

34 Thirty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the Board. [May, 

the neighborhood of Nowgong. Two are in immediate request for Siam ; 
one for Hongkong and one for Ningpo ; two to accompany Mr. Day to Nel- 
lore, and two for Africa. At this moment twenty missionaries are needed, 
besides female assistants, to place the Asiatic and African Missions in a 
healthful and prosperous condition, without adopting a single new station ; 
and there will also be needful a further average supply of three missionaries 
a year to fill the places of such as may be removed by disease or death. 
In other words, and distributing the supplies through the proposed period 
of five years, there ought to be sent to the stations in Asia and Africa, to 
furnish them with their lowest complement of laborers, five mission fami- 
lies the first year, and eight for each year succeeding. 

This would be giving to each isolated station but three missionaries, and 
two to those more nearly associated together, with a proportionate number 
for principal stations where necessarily there is a greater variety and con- 
centration of labors. And a less number than this would continue to ex- 
pose the stations to occasional destitution or abandonment, the evils of 
which, whether on the heathen, the native churches, the missionaries, or 
even on the pecuniary interests of the Union, are known from sad experi- 
ence to be not few nor small. 

Assuming that a prominent and indispensable feature of our policy be 
the sending out of new missionaries, and that their number and yearly 
ratio be as above indicated, — five the first year and eight the second, and so 
on, — we shall need the second year for this department an additional ex- 
penditure of nine thousand dollars. The average expenditure for each mis- 
sion family sent out is the same from year to year ; but in the second year 
we have a surplus of $5,500 from the first $10,000 allowed for reinforce- 
ments the first year, the ordinary support of five missionaries after the first 
year being $4,500; and for three of the second year's reinforcement, de- 
signed to fill vacated places, an inconsiderable charge only will be required 
for repair of houses. 

To the departments of native preachers and schools some additions will 
be requisite the second year, but the increase of expenditure will not be 
large. Supposing the proportion of native laborers to missionaries to re- 
main as at present, or about four to one, this would involve an annual ad- 
dition of twenty native laborers or an additional expenditure of $1,200. 
For increase of schools, an addition of $800 might suffice ; making the in- 
crease of expenditure for these two departments about $2,000. 

For printing operations and for miscellanies no considerable addition of 
income would be needed. It is one of the encouragements to liberal de- 
vices and liberal deeds in the conduct of the missionary enterprise, that 
when once a sufficient basis has been provided, all increase of contributions 
goes directly to the main object of building up the superstructure and to 
reduce the proportionate or per centum cost of the scaffi)lding and ma- 

The ratio of increase for the three following years would not need to be 
very dissimilar to the estimate for the second; except that in regard to 
reinforcements, a larger surplus would remain for the third and subsequent 
years, and the additional cost in that department would be proportionably 

To state the estimate summarily. In order to place the missions and 
stations in good condition at the expiration of five years, without aiming at 
further expansion or increasing the number of stations, there will be need- 
ed for the foreign expenditures of the Union, 

In the year ending April 1, 1849, . . $93,000 

" " 1850, . . 104,000 

" " " « " 1851, . . 1J4,000 

and an annual increase of $10,000 for 1852 and 1853. 

We have said that the necessities of the missions preclude all reasonable 
doubt as to the policy to be pursued the ensuing five years ; meaning by 

1848.] Foi^eign Expenditures of the Union. 35 

this remark, that beyond all question their first want is a reinforcement of 
missionaries. It is a pertinent inquiry, however, in view of the urgent need 
of more missionaries, Why distribute the su})ply through so many years.' 
Why not reduce the expenditure at other points, so as to concentrate a 
larger proportion of the annual income upon the single object of sending 
out missionaries .5 

But at what points shall the reduction be made ? Shall we reduce the 
number of native preachers and assistants? To derive from this quarter 
substantial aid, our number of dismissals must be large. A reduction of 
one fourth of all our native preachers and assistants would not provide a 
sufficiency for sending out two mission families. A dismissal of one fourth 
in our Asiatic Missions alone, where the substitution would be designed to 
be made, would not provide for sending out one missionary. Besides, if a 
substitution could be tnade of one missionary for thirty-three assistants,— 
for in Asia that would be the proportion the first year, — it would be a sub- 
stitution of which we might well challenge the expediency. Native help- 
ers are helpers of exceeding value, for the services to which they are ap- 
pointed. They are emphatically the successful preachers. Tiiey can labor 
unweariedly and uninterruptedly where missionaries may not, and ought 
not, venture. They are often the right arm of the missionary; — teachers, 
interpreters, assistant translators, messengers, representatives among the 
churches, pastors. They are eminently the fruits of missionary labor ; and 
their cooperation with missionaries and eventual capability to dispense in 
good measure with foreign aid in evangelizing their own people, — a ca- 
pability with which they can be endued only by this very course of prepar- 
atory training as auxiliaries, — is one of the most cherished and gainful re- 
sults which missionaries are sent to achieve. 

Shall we reduce the number of schools? Disiniss all the day schools and 
we release half the funds requisite to send one mission family. Dismiss all 
the boarding schools, except those supported from Govern irient ap[)ropria- 
tions, and we can send three, perhaps four, missionaries. That is, dismiss 
the Bassa school in Africa, the Nowgong orphan school, the school for 
Karen assistants in Arracan, and the schools of Maulmain and Tavoy. 
But in dismissing these schools, we pluck up the seed which we have 
sown ; we lay waste the promise of future years. We do more. We 
wrest from the hands of missionaries already in the field, skilled in labor 
and diligently urging forward their appropriate and chosen tasks, the very 
implements, together with the subjects, of their successful toil ; we con- 
demn to comparative inactivity or to forms of labor of secondary utility, 
trained as they have been to particular kinds of service and placed in favor- 
ing circumstances, workmen chosen and tried and who need not to be 
ashamed ; and we do this, that we may a little sooner place by their side 
strangers yet to be acclimated, helpers who have yet to acquire their instru- 
ments of iabor and the ability to use them, fellow-laborers. who, when they 
shall have become equally with themselves inured to labor and at home in 
their work, may be also, like them, constrained in turn to stay their hands 
from the reaping. These schools are not mere incidents to the missionary 
enterprise; they are part and substance; they enter into the essential 
texture of every plan of permanently profitable evangelism. They are not 
the immediate instrumentality of preaching the gospel; — although they gen- 
erally furnish the most auspicious opportunities for its dispensation ; — but 
they are an indispensable instrumentality. They are not literally native pas- 
tors and teachers ; but they are nurseries and seminaries of a native 

In a more unrestricted view, schools are of highest moment to the general 
evangelizing of a [)eople. In lands so destitute of intelligence and intelli- 
gent thought as are iieathen coimtries, mind must be quickened, and fed 
with thought and disciplined. Knowledge must be communicated, and all 
the varied helps to knowledge as well as to piety must be provided. This 
is done by schools. And in missions of the Union these schools are multi- 

36 Thirty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the Board. [May, 

plied in the lowest possible proportion with other instrumentalities, con- 
sistent with any good degree of efficiency in themselves or those. 

The only otiier departments from which to withdraw funds so as to en- 
large our reinforcements, are the publishing and the miscellaneous. Of 
the fornjer, — the publication department, — to which specifically and as a 
net surplus we have apportioned but $3000, the expenses are for the greater 
part defrayed by Bible and Tract Societies, whose appropriations we are 
not at liberty to divert to purposes of our own. The balance, with a very 
inconsiderable exception, is embraced in the allowances to the missionaries 
and assistants, or is covered by the earnings of the several printing estab- 
lishments from occasional services to others, — services which they would 
be ill able to render, if suffered ordinarily to lie unemployed and by almost 
unavoidable consequence to become disarranged, and covered with dust 
and mould. 

As to miscellanies and unforeseen exigencies, it is, doubtless, possible to 
reduce the expenditure, provided the Executive Committee will maintain 
against all appeals from the missions an inexorable ear, and will shut their 
eyes to all indications of Divine Providence, however clear and authorita- 
tive. The experience of the past is, nevertheless, replete with instruction. 
It would remain an open question, to say the least, whether in such a 
substitution of measures the greater good would not be sacrificed to the 
less, the suggestions of sound discretion to the promptings of a short- 
sighted zeal. 

Our conclusion is, that the ratio of expenditures in the several depart- 
ments should remain essentially as it is now. To send larger supplies of 
missionaries we must have a proportionably larger income. We say noth- 
ing of larger supplies of candidates for missionary appointment. We appre- 
hend little embarrassment from want of men. Ordinarily, the supply is 
proportionate to the demand, and to the liberality of the churches in sup- 
plying the requisite funds. 

Two inquiries remain to be considered or noted. The first respects the 
order in which reinforcements ought to be sent. Without attempting very 
minute specifications, we suggest the following princi[)les as a directory. 

1. Regard must be had to the relative necessities of the stations, — the 
amount of labor indispensable to be performed, and their liability to partial 
or total abandonment in consequence of sickness or death of missionaries ; 
— or to the general importance and promise of the several fields, and the 
peculiarly favorable crises which one and another may present at any mo- 
ment for effective labor. Thus, of all the missionaries to be sent within 
the ensuing five years, we have designated one half for the Burman and 
Karen Missions. For the other half it would be difficult to determine the 
priority of claims, provided the stations be continued. China, Siam, Assam, 
the Teloogoos, the Bassa Mission, each in turn pleads for succor with an 
earnestness and importunity that cannot be resisted. 

2. In the perplexity occasioned by the apparently equal validity of con- 
flicting claims, God may enlighten our darkness by the diverse peculiarities 
of gifts and graces which he bestows on those who are to be sent to the 
missions. Apart from individual predilections for one or another field of 
labor, — predilections sometimes implanted at almost the moment of one's 
spiritual birth, and growing thenceforth with his growth and strengthening 
with his strength ; — there are often adaptations of character, native and ac- 
quired, mental and corporeal, which indicate with great clearness the ap- 
propriate field and sphere, and may not without improvidence be set aside. 
The Committee recognize in such adaptations some of the ways in which 
Christ by his spirit and providence exi)resses his will ; and they obey. 

The second inquiry alluded to, respects the ex[)ediency of attempting 
to reinforce all the stations; in other words, the expediency of allowing 
one or more of the stations to become extinct, so as to enlarge or strength- 
en more expeditiously at the remaining points. On this question we 
have purposely, in this paper, forborne to speak. Our remarks have been 

1S48.] Report on Foreign Expenditures of the Union. 37 

based on the contrary assumption, inasmuch as the agitation of this subject 
would be to call under revision a part of our admitted policy. Still, it is 
a subject for grave inquiry, and pertinent to the present occasion, whether 
all our missions and stations ought to be continued ; and it is proposed to 
submit the question for consideration in a separate paper. 
All which is respectfully submitted. 

By order of the Executive Committee, 

S. Peck, Cor. Sec. For. Dep. 

The Committee to whom was referred the paper of the Corresponding Sec- 
retary on the Expenditures of the American Baptist Missionary Union, 
and the policy to be pursued therein the ensuing five years, have attended 
to that duty and ask leave to report: — 

The document submitted to their consideration has been prepared with 
great care, and presents an amount of statistical information of great 
value to the friends of missions. It, however, embraces a great variety 
of detail, and looks forward to the operations of the Union for so long a 
period in advance, that there are many of its suggestions which require a 
more deliberate examination and a wider knowledge of facts than in the 
time allotted can be given to it by yoin- Committee. A few suggestions in 
regard to the principles which it involves, are all that can be expected on 
the present occasion. 

Your Committee are in doubt as to the propriety of making any estimate 
of the increased contributions for the next five years a basis for present 
action. Nor does it appear that such a basis is of any practical value. In 
this respect we must rely upon the annual contributions afforded us, while 
we must make every effort in our power to increase their amount. 

The document also suggests tlie ratio of appropriation to the several 
branches of missionary labor lor five years in advance. On this subject 
they could not decide without farther information. If a decision on this 
question is to be had at the present meeting, they would recommend that 
the Treasurer be requested to report before the adjournment the salaries at 
the different stations, the annual expenditure for buildings and schools in 
each, and the amount of incidental exf)enses, together with the manner in 
which such exjjenditure is usually incurred, whether by the niissionary or 
the vote of the missionary commu^iity, or by the order of the Executive " 
Conunittee. Without such information the Board coidd not decide so in- 
tricate a subject so long in advance. 

In regard to the relative importance of the various departments of mis- 
sionary labor, your Committee offer the following suggestions. 

]. The first and great object of the Union is to send the gospel to 
the heathen by the living voice of the preacher. This is in obedience 
to the exjilicit command of Christ, and to it every other should be subordi- 
nate. Experience has shown in the history of missions, that where the 
preaching of the gospel has abounded, converts have been multiplied ; and 
where tliis has declined, the Spirit has been withheld. Your Committee 
would, therefore, urge the increase of ])reacliers of the gospel both by mis- 
sionaries and native assistants, to the widest extent that our means will 

The printing of the bible and of tracts is chiefly sustained by kindred 
Societies, and, therefore, it needs but a passing remark. This means of 
converting the heathen derives almost all its efficacy from the preaching 
of tlie gosi)el. In vain are bibles and tracts printed and given away, unless 
the living voice has aroused the slumbering conscience of men dead in 
trespasses and sins. Hence it is deserving of inquiry, whether this means 
of doing good has not assumed too great im|)ortance. To follow the 
preaching of the gospel, it is invaluable ; to precede it, comparatively useless. 
Hence the number of printing establishments should be no greater than the 
necessities of the stations demand. It would be bad economy to employ 
two when the work could be done by one. 

38 Thirty -Fourth Annual Meeting of the Board. May, 

Schools among the heathen are of two kinds; — one for the religious in- 
struction of native assistants, the other for the literary education of chil- 
dren. Our expenditure in this department is estimated, aside from the sal- 
aries of teachers, at $10,000, or at two thirds the cost of native assistants. 

The schools for the instruction of native assistants are invaluable, and 
are essential to the promulgation of the gospel among heathen natioiis. 
They ought not, however, to be multiplied beyond necessity. It is to be 
seriously considered whether our theological schools coidd not be united, 
and thus additional means afforded for the preaching of the gospel. 

The education of the young by day and boarding schools is, in the pres- 
ent condition of our missions, a matter of secondary importance. The mis- 
sionary who is by profession a preacher of the gospel, should never leave 
his appropriate work for that of teaching school. If, during the rainy sea- 
son, labor abroad is impracticable, then the time of the missionary may be 
thus appropriated. But such labor should not be suffered to interfere with 
proclaiming the news of salvation to the perishing. To spend that titne in 
teaching children to read, which might be spent in leading men to Christ, 
cannot be the duty of the missionary of the cross. 

Again. In determining the relative importance of different missions, care 
is to be taken. The rule we suppose proper to be observed is, that we 
should send laborers most abundantly where God has set before us the 
most abundant harvest. We have not at the present time a sufficient num- 
ber of missionaries to baptize the converts whom God has given us among 
the Karens. This mission should, therefore, occupy the first place in our 
expenditure, so long as the present encouragement continues. Again ; 
when a people may by other means than our agency, be supplied with the 
preaching of the gospel, the demand upon us becomes less urgent. Again ; 
a mission of equal promise easily accessible should be preferred to one far 
distant and difficult of approach. 

On the matter of the temporary return of missionaries, if they choose it 
after a given period of foreign labor, your Committee fully coincide with 
the suggestions of the Secretary. They believe that such a measure would 
be both wise, economical, fraternal, and fraught with rich blessings to the 
churches at home. They recommend that the statistics on this subject be 
presented by the Secretary at the next annual meeting, in order to prepare 
the Board for passing a general regulation lor the government of our mis- 

Your Committee offer these brief suggestions as the result of the limited 
opportunity in their power for reflection. They are well aware that the 
pecuniary means at the disposal of the Board are insufficient to acconjplish 
the tithe of the good which they desire. It is, thereibre,our duty to employ 
our means to the best possible advantage, so that our efforts may tell with 
the best effect on the spiritual good of the souls to whom the Son of God 
has commanded us to bear the message of salvation. 
All which is respectfully submitted. 

By order of the Committee, 

F. VVayland, Chairman. 

The Committee on European Missions reported through Rev. R. 
Turnbull, chairman. The report was adopted, and ordered to be 

The Committee to whom was referred that part of the report of the Foreign 
Secretary which concerns European Missions, beg leave to report: — 
The principle seems to be universally conceded, that it is our duty to act 
in the direction of the Divine purpose, so far as we can ascertain it from 
the movements of his providence and grace. This has been our settled 
policy in missionary operations. Following out this principle, we have 
peep encouraged to prosecute with vigor our operations in Germany, where 

1848.] Report on European Missions. 39 

God has most evidently opened for us "a wide and effectual door." Pious 
and able men have been raised up in that interesting country, and churches 
formed at the most important points, in the vallies of the Elbe and of the 
Rhine, in Hamburg, Berlin, Breslau and other cities. Notwithstanding the 
intolerance of the established churches, and the various embarrassments 
and difficuhies thrown in their way by despotic governments and ti)e pre- 
judices of the people, our missionaries have prosecuted their labors with 
cheering success, and the churches formed under their ministry, in almost 
every part of Germany, have increased in purity and numbers, and extend- 
ed their labors upon every hand. The recent political changes, all of which 
look to the establishment of civil and political freedom, have removed the 
principal obstacle, in the structure of society and ol" government, to the 
promulgation of the gospel and the formation of independent Christian 
churches. All Germany, from the Rhine to the Danube, has felt the shock 
which has passed through Europe and roused the nations to the assertion 
of their rights. Hamburg is free. All Prussia is open to the gospel. Han- 
over and Saxony, Baden and even Wurtemburg have established entire re- 
ligious liberty. Indeed, no part of Germany remains under the shackles of 
intolerance, and all invite the proclamation of an unfettered Christianity. 
Much confusion of a political and social kind will, doubtless, ensue ; and it 
is not impossible that Germany may become the battle-ground for freedom 
among the nations of Continental Europe ; but these changes are under the 
control of the Almighty, and will, doubtless, prepare the way of the Lord. 
"Ask of me," says God, addressing his Son, "ask of me, and I will give 
thee the nations for thine inheritance and the uttermost parts of the earth 
for thy possession ; and thou shall break them with a rod of iron, and dash 
them in pieces like a potter's vessel." That this has reference to impious 
and tyrannical empires and states, cannot admit of a doubt ; for it is imme- 
diately added, "Be wise now, thereibre, O ye kings; be instructed, ye 
judges of the earth. Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice with trembling. 
Kiss the Son lest he be angry, and ye perish from the way when his wrath 
is kindled but a little; blessed are all they that put their trust in Him." 
Thus Jesus Christ is king in Sion, and controls the nations of the earth ; 
and thus, by means of change and revolution, he dashes thetn to pieces 
whenever they impede the progress of his reign. Tiie gospel advances, 
and erects its noblest triuinphs upon the ruins of broken empires and fallen 
dynasties. Though kings and judges "perish from the way," the peoj)le 
that retnain are the objects of his love and pity, and will yet receive the 
glad influences of the gospel. "For the mountain of the Lord's house shall 
be established upon the top of the mountains and exalted above the hills, 
and all nations shall flow unto it. And n)any people shall go and say, 
Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the 
God of Jacob, and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his 
])aths ; for out of Sion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord 
from Jerusalem ; and he shall judge among the nations and rebuke many 
people. And they shall beat their swords into ploughshares and their spears 
into pruning-hooks ; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither 
shall they learn war any more." 

The Germans, through all their political changes and revolutions, are be- 
coming i)repared for free institutions. They possess some of the noblest 
traits of character ; and although agitated by speculative doubts, are long- 
ing for the truth. They are precisely in that transition state which is favor- 
able for the triumphs of Christianity. "God has broken off our fetters," 
exclaims the noble and devoted Oncken, " and the whole land lies open 
before us for the most extensive missionary efforts." 

In France the prospect is equally promising. Indeed, no country at the 
present moment presents a more important and encouraging field of mis- 
sionary labor. In the recent revolution, so sudden, so startling and com- 
plete, no one can fail to discern the hand of God ; and whatever may be 
the issue, it cannot fail to secure entire religious liberty, and prepare the 

40 Thirty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the Board. [May, 

way for the preaching of a pure gospel. Our missionaries there feel this, 
and urge the necessity of reinforcing the missions, too feeble by far, and 
utterly inadequate to occupy the vast field which invites their culture. 
France has a [topulation of thirty-five millions, the great majority of whom 
have either thrown off or are now ready to throw ofl^ the superstitions of 
the Papal church. Of these, one million and a half are nominally Protes- 
tants, among whom prevail much forujalism and doubt, with an increasing 
spirituality and devotion. Many, both among nominal Protestants and 
Catholics, within a few years have been converted to vital religion. Whole 
villages have abandoned their superstitions, and manifest a desire for a 
purer and more powerful faith. The nation, though greatly infected with 
infidelity, has made surprising progress during the last fifty years. The 
rampant atheism of 1789 has passed away. It has been superseded by a 
milder scepticism and a spirit of inquiry which make a nearer approach to 
the gospel, and in many minds by a profound conviction of the divine 
character of Christianity. The thinkers of that country are by no means 
satisfied with their position. They long for some clearer light, — some bet- 
ter and purer faith. The great body of the people will listen to the gospel, 
and notwithstanding all their frivolity and sensualism, will feel its trans- 
forming influence. The Republic of France fraternizes with that of the 
United States. Ties the strongest and tenderest are about to unite the two 
countries. Every where Americans are received with enthusiasm ; and 
the way is now opened for the most generous reception of the missionary 
who goes from this land, hailed as he must be not only as the representa- 
tive of religious but of civil freedom. The attention of the Provisional Gov- 
ernment has itself been turned to the position occupied by the Baptists in 
that land, as the defenders of religious freedom and the asserters of the 
very princij)le contended for by the Reform Banquets, and upon which 
turned the revolution. The Lord has raised up an interesting and devoted 
class of native preachers, and now six or eight young men in F" ranee are 
awaiting the decision of the Executive Committee, to prepare themselves 
for the promulgation of the gospel in their native land. Shall we give 
them the means ? Shall we reinforce the mission? We unhesitatingly re- 
ply, that we believe this to be our duty to the fullest extent of our ability. 
Evangelize France and Germany, and with England and the United States 
you have secured the means of evangelizing the world. You follow in the 
footsteps of revolution, and advance with the progress of society, the means 
by which the Almighty aj)[)ears to be preparing the way for the universal 
trium|)h of Christianity. 

As to the Mission in Greece, yoin- Committee cannot speak with the same 
confidence. Dear to the hearts of many, from early associations, long 
struggles and severe persecutions, it has not yielded the return which we 
might have reasonably anticipated. But the changes now jjassing over 
Europe will reach Greece, and God himself may decide the question as to 
the propriety of sustaining or altogether abandoning this interesting but 
somewhat unpiomising mission. We have ample confidence in the good 
judgment and eminent piety of our missionaries there ; but whether they 
might not be more usefully employed in some other field, Asiatic or Euro- 
pean, may become a grave question for the consideration of the Union. 
In the meanwhile, let us trust in God, and with promptitude, earnestness 
and liberality, perform our duty to the perishing of every land. The Com- 
mittee, in conclusion, wish to say, that while they are aware of the in- 
adequacy of the means jjlaced at the dis|)osal of the Missionary Union, to 
meet the increasing demands of nearly all our missionary stations, it is our 
imperative duty, in the present exigency, to plant ourselves strongly in the 
wiilenin^ fields of missionary labor in Continental Europe. 
Respectfully submitted. 

Robert Turnbull, E. E. L. Taylor,^ 

A. D. Gillette, Henry Davis, S- Committee. 

B. Brierly, ) 

1848.] Report on Asiatic Missions. 41 

The Committee on Siam, China and Assam Missions reported 
through Rev. B. T. Welch, D. D., chairman. The report was 
adopted, and ordered to be printed. 

The Committee on the Siamese, Chinese and Assamese Missions, respect- 
fully report: — 

That they are deeply impressed with the conviction that the section of 
your Secretary's report relatinir to this important part of the missionary 
field, must be regarded as of the greatest interest. It is but a few years 
since the churches could speak of her Siamese and Chinese Missions; it is 
but recently that humble prayer has gone up to the throne of grace 
for the inter|)osition of Divine power on their behalf, and now their teem- 
ing millions stretch forth their hands and cry unto us for the bread of life ; 
and all that is solenm and authoritative in the obligation to "/ree/?/ give " as 
we "have freely received," demands the response of Christian love and self- 
denying devotedness. 

Your Committee are aware of the formidable obstacles that oppose the 
advancing progress of the Redeemer's kingdom in these regions enveloped 
in the gloom of the shadow of death. Long have they been regarded as 
the darkest [ilaces of the heathen world, as a department of Satan's empire 
over which he has ever maintained the most jealous guard, and around 
which he has drawn up his strongest legions. And now, when they appear 
to be slowly and reluctantly retreating before the invading soldiers of the 
cross, and in the good [)rovidence of God a breach is partly o[)ened in their 
apparently impregnable defences, for the admission of the gospel; although 
a \'ew missionaries have effected an entrance with the word of God in their 
hands and the love of God in their hearts, yet so vast are their numbers, 
so degrading their idolatries, so inveterate their habits, so profoimd their 
darkness, that the skepticism of the world has confidently affirmed their 
conversion impossible by any resources that Christianity can command ; 
and even hearts animated and sustained by a holy faith have engaged in 
the enterprise in weakness and fear and much trendiling. Other idolatrous 
tribes have been induced to renounce their fnlge gods and worship the only 
living Jehovah. But where among the inhabitants of this dark world do 
we find a people who regard foreigners with so much suspicion and super- 
cilious contempt; who are so proud of their antiquity, learning and fan- 
cied superiority, or so ardent in their attachment to their ancient habits and 
customs, religion and laws ? 

But what are these antagonistic forces in contrast with His glorious 
power who is " mighty to save and strong to deliver:"' What condjination 
of influences concentrate an amount of energy sufficient to resist the ac- 
complishment of His pm-poses, or arrest the Oumipotent hand that suspend- 
ed the earth upon nothing and spread forth the heavens as a curtain ? His 
iujUHitahle decree has gone forth, " Ask of me, and I will give thee the 
heathen for thine inheritance," and it includes in its all comprehensive 
grace, even these strong holds of the powers of darkness. Upon this 
promise may his servants confidently rely, and in joyful anticipation of its 
certain fulfilment, lift up their banners in His name who " hath said and 
will do it, who hath spoken and will !)ring it to pass." But while faith 
cheers the heart, and hope sheds its brightness upon the prospect, it is not 
to be expected that the whole dark empire of the god of this world is to be 
suddenly reduced into hmnhle submission to the government of the Son of 
God, or the grand design attained by other instiumentality than the strenu- 
ous effort and liberal devotedness of his people. Tlie S|)irit of prayer and 
self-consecration, the strong consciousness of personal obligation to engage 
in the work in some form, must pervade the churches and precede the dis- 
j)lays of Divine power and the fulfilment of the promise. Nor are the king- 
doms of idolatry and superstition to be won to the dominion of Jesus, by 
efforts directed merely to the destruction of external obstacles and influen- 

42 TJdrty-Fourtli Annual Meeting of the Board. [May, 

ces hostile to the reijin of truth, j)eace and righteousness. The j^ospel is a 
religion of holy principle, and not of outward forms and compliances; it 
has relation, therefore, to what is in man, rather than to what is around 
Iiim. Its design is to convince the judgment, to control the will, to direct 
and purify t!ie conscience, elevate and sanctify the affections. It makes the 
tree good, that correspondent fruit may be produced to the glory of God. 
It was designed to act upon individual minds, transfusing its holy peace 
into the heart; rather than upon masses of men or entire communities, im- 
pelling them at once to its benign results. It constrains man to realize his 
individuality as the subject of God's moral government, to act for himself 
and for eternity. It was in this way the world was lost, and in this way it 
must be won. When the [)rince of darkness invaded paradise, he assailed 
not the beautiful residence of man, prostrated not its luxuriant trees, nor 
turned the rivers of Eden from their natural courses; he acted on mind, on 
a solitary mind. The tem|)ted in turn became a tempter, and when sin 
had once entered, the work of destruction was complete ; all external 
beauty was involved in the common ruin, and Nature, 

" Sighing through all her works, gave signs of woe 
That all was lost." 

Thus when Jesus came in the glory of his power to restore the fearfuJ 
ruin, although the Sovereign and Lord of all and with infinite ease he 
could control the mental and moral elements of the world, and though all 
was offensive to His immaculate purity, he interfered not with its external 
arrangements. He fomented no political revolutions, counselled no revolts 
against the government of Ceesar ; and while iniquity in every form of de- 
velopment quailed beneath his stern and indignant rebuke, he attempted no 
violent changes in the structure of society, no innovations ujion its political 
or social institutions. His was a nobler, a more glorious and gracious aim, — 
the perfect renovation, the ultimate and eternal freedom and happiness of 
man. In accomplishing this grand design. He not only assumes our de- 
graded nature and descends to tlie depths of his mysterious humiliation, 
but prosecutes his work upon the principle evolved in his own interesting 
and instructive parable. The little leaven is thrown into the corrupt mass ; 
the grain of mustard-seed cast into the earth ; from causes invisible and 
minute proceed results the most grand and sublime, and that wake the 
harmonies of heaven to the praise of redeeming love. Individuals are de- 
livered from the bondage of corruption, and influenced by love divine re- 
flect the light they have received upon others, until the rays multiplied by 
grace are concentrated upon a whole community, and a nation rejoices in 
the beams of the Sun of righteousness. 

It is this principle that confirms oin- hope for China, Siam and Assam, 
and gives assurance of their ultimate emancipation. A single convert is 
the pledge of their subjection to the King in Zion. But we have more to 
encourage hope and stimulate zeal. Their translated bible, their consti- 
tuted churches, their gathered schools, their native preachers and devoted 
missionaries, unite with the promises of a faithful God in giving the as- 
surances, that these reahns of darkness and death shall soon become the 
kingdoms of our Lord and his Christ. 

Respectfully submitted, &c. 

B. T. Welch, Chairman. 

The Committee on Religious Services recommended that the 
Board meet this evening to hear from their missionary, Rev. J. H. 
Vinton, with such remarks from others as may be offered; and also 
that the annual sermon be preached on Thursday evening, by Rev. 
J. N. Granger. The recommendations were approved. 

The Committee to prepare a Circular to the members of the 
Union on the proposed alteration of the Constitution, reported 

1848.] Circular addressed to the Members of the Union. 43 

through Rev. F. Wayland, D. D., chairman, the following form of 
a Circular; which was adopted. 

Dear Sir, 

At the annual meeting of the Board of Managers of the American Baptist 
Missionary Union, the following resolution was with great unanimity 

Resolved, That the report of the Conunittee of Nine on the Alteration of 
the Constitution, he pubhshed with the proceedings of the Board, and be 
presented to the Union, and that the Home Secretary be directed to address 
a Circular to every member of the Union, requesting his opinion on the 
question now at issue, and that he report the resuU at the next meeting. 

In compliance with that resolution, I respectfully request your answer to 
the following question : — Are you in favor of so amending the Third Article 
of the Constitution, that annual memberships niciy be created by the pay- 
ment of fifty dollars? 

Please answer Yes or No. Sign your name, and return this letter by 

Yours respectfully, 

Home Secretary. 

On motion, the report on the Teloogoo Mission was referred to the 
Union for its special consideration. 

Resolved, That the reports of the Executive Committee and Trea- 
surer be accepted and printed with the proceedings of the Board. 

Resolved, That the Chairman and Secretary of the Board be in- 
structed to report to the Union the proceedings of the Board. 

Resolved, That the Treasurer and Corresponding Secretaries be 
instructed to present abstracts from their reports to the Union. 

The Minutes of the proceedings were read and approved. 

Adjourned till 7 J, P. M., with prayer by Rev. M. Allen, of 

li o'clock, P. M. 

The Board met, and the meeting was opened with singing, and 
prayer by Rev. P. Church, D. D., of New York. 

The chairman introduced to the large audience Rev. J. H. Vin- 
ton, missionary from Burmah, who addressed the congregation 
upon the interests and necessities of the Karen Mission. The 
meeting was also addressed by Rev. P. Church, D. D., of New 
York, Rev. E. L. Magoon, of Ohio, and Rev. S. H. Cone, D. D., 
of New York. 

A collection was taken in aid of the Missionary Union, amount- 
ing to $213. 

The Board then adjourned sine die, after singing the doxology; 
and the benediction was pronounced by Rev. S. H. Cone, D. D., 
of New York. 

M. J. Rhees, Rec. Sec'y, 


Second Annual Meeting of the Union. 


12th triennial, 2d session. 

Troij, JY. Y., May 18, 1848. 

The American Baptist Missionary Union assembled this day at 
10 o'clock, A. M., in the meeting-house of the First Baptist Church, 
to hold its second annual meeting. 

The President, Hon. George N. Briggs, of Massachusetts, took 
the chair. 

Prayer was offered by Rev. J. PI. Vinton, returned missionary 
from Bui'mah. 

The President, in entering upon his duties, made an appropriate 
and highly interesting address. 

Rev. Messrs. I. Wescott of N. Y., C. W. Mulford of N. J.,' A. 
Bailey of 111., H. Seaver of Mass., S. W. Adams of Ohio, and J. P. 
Tustin of R. I., were appointed a Committee to ascertain the names 
of members present; who subsequently reported as follows: — 

S. L. Caldwell, 
A. H. Gould, 

E. R. Bailey, 
E. E. Cummings, 
E. Dodge, 
J. A. Gault, 
N. Hooper, 

N. W. Bottom, 
Rufus Brown, 
Josiah Cannon, 
P. W. Dean, 
L. A. Dunn, 
Horace Fletcher, 

3. W. Sawyer, 
N. W. Williams, 

JVeiv Hampshire. 
T. O. Lincohi, 

D. G. Mason, 
S. W. Miles, 
G. Robins, 

O. O. Stearns,' 

J. C. Foster, 
C. H. Green, 
S. Griggs, 
C. W. Hodges. 
M. G. Hodge, 

E. Hutchinson, 

Joseph Wilson, 
Adam Wilson, 

Henry Tonkin, 
T. G. Wriffht. 

A. Lamb, 
G. P. Metcalf, 
Daniel Packer, 
O. C. Skinner. 

J. Andem, 
William E. Battey, 
R. Bubcock, 
John Blain, 

A. J. Bellows, 
G. W. BoswortI), 
R. K. Bellamy, 
E. Bright, Jr., 
George N. Brigg.", 

B. Biierly, 
W. L. Brown, 
D. M. Crane, 
N. Colver, 

A. Cliapin, 
William C. Child, 

William Crowell, 
Henry Clark, 
M. G. Clarke, 
George Ciininiiugs, 
T. F. Caldicott, 
L. E. Caswell, 
G. J. Carleton, 
Amos Deniing, 
J. H. Duncan, 
R. E. Eddy, 

A. Fisher, 

C. W. Flanders, 
T. Gilbert, 
J. M. Graves, 

B. C. Giafton, 

V. R. Hotchkiss, 
William Heath, 
A. W. Hammond, 
W. Hague, 
J. Jennings, 
H. Jameson, 
']'. E. Keeley, 
H. Lincoln, 
G. W. Little, 
William Lamson, 
W. Leverett, 
George Millard, 
A. Merriam, 
Bradley Miner, 
R. H. Ncale, 

1848.] Members of the Unio7i present. 


E, Nelson, 

J. W. Ol instead, 

J. W. Parker, 

S. S. Perkins, 
L. Porter, 
N. M. Perkins, 
W. H. Parmley, 
Addison Parker, 
Solomon Peck, 
George Phippen, 

V. J. Bates, 
H. H. Brown, 
J. N. Granger, 

H. Richards, 
W. C. Richards, 
G. S. G. S pence, 
Horace Seaver, 
Edward Savage, 
Daniel Sanderson, 
T. Shaw, 
J. T. Smith, 
S. B. Swaim, 
Barnas Sears, 

Rhode Island. 
T. C. Jameson, 
P. Miller, 
H. G. Stewart, 

J. C. Stockbridge, 
O. S. Stearns, 
Wm. H. Shailer, 
J. S. Shailer, 
L. Tracy, 
O. Tracy, 
D. S. Tyler, 
J. G. Warren, 
J. Wadsworth, 
A. Ward. 

J. P. Tustin, 
F. Wayland. 

N. Burr, 
J. Chapman, 
Elisha Cushman, 
Albert Day, 
A. E. Denison, 

E, Denison, 
Dwight Ives, 
L. Muzzy, 
S. D. Phelps, 
J. R, Stone, 

J. S. Swan, 
R. Turnbull, 
P. C. Turner, 
Charles Willett. 

Amos Aller, 

Spencer S. Ainsworth, 

Charles Babcock, 

Luman C. Bates, 

I. K. Bronson, 

A. H. Burlingliam, 

Alfred Bennett, 

A. M. Beebee, 

J. H. Brouner, 

J. L. Brown, 

Isaac Bevan, 

A. Bailey, 

J. S. Backus, 
J. F. Bishop, 
Jose|)h Ballard, 
G. C. Baldwin, 

C. L. Bacon, 
Thomas Brandt, 
David R. Barton, 
Russell Chappel, 
J. D. Cole, 
Charles Clarke, 

B. W. Capron, 
S. S. Cutting, 
S. A. Corey,^ 
S. H. Cone, 

D. Corwin, 
D. G. Corey, 
William Clark, 
W. B. Cintis, 
Leroy Church, 
Harrison Daniels, 
Gorham Denison, 
Henry Davis, 

C. Darby, 

JVcw York. 
Orrin Dodge, 
Ezra Dean, 
W. W. Everts, 
Josei)h T. Evans, 
G. W. Eaton, 
C. M. Fuller, 
David Foote, 
N. Fox, 
Albert R. Fox, 
Z. Freeman, 
II. W. Gammett, 
J. W. Green, 
S. T. Griswold, 
John Goadby, 
Joel H. Green, 
George Gault, 
S. B.' Grant, 
E. S. Gallup, 

C. Hartshorn, 
L. J. Huntley, 
Benjamin M. Hill, 

D. Hascall, 
Josiah Halt, 
J. S. Holme, 

E. L. Harris, 
George Hatt, 
Leland Howard, 
J. L. Hodge, 

J, Hastings, 
O. B. Judd, 
A. C. Kendrick, 
A. S. Kneeland, 
Franklin Kidder, 
D. W. Litchfield, 
Lewis Leonard, 

W. H. Lane, 
J. S. Ladd, 

E. Lathrop, 
H. Miner, 
Reuben Morey, 
John Monroe, 
W. H. Munn, 
R. M. Miner, 
W. McCarthy, 
A. P. Mason, 
J. O. Mason, 

J. N. Murdock, 
S. M. Osgood, 
J. B. Olcott, 
J. W. Osborn, 
Alfred Pinney, 
Daniel Putnam, 

F. S. Park, 
W. F. Parrish, 

D. A. Peck, 

E. G. Perry, 
John Peck, 
N. A. Reed, 
S. S. Relyea, 
S. Remington, 
Philip Roberts, 
Charles Randall, 
J. F. Richardson, 
J. H. Raymond, 
R. R. Raymond, 
S. R. Shotwell, 
John H. Smith, 
J. E. Southworth, 
John Smitzer, 
Marsena Stone, 


Second Annual Meeting of the Union. 


Ira R. Steward, 
J. W. Sarles, 
James Scott, 
C. P. Sheldon, 
A. H. Stowel, 
H. K. Stimson, 
Joseph N. Stockbridge, 
H. Silliman, 
Smith Sheldon, 
Gaylor Sheldon, 
John T. Seely, 
Levi Tucker, 

E. M. Barker, 
J. G. Collom, 
J. M. Challis, 
S. J. Drake, 
H. C. Fish, 
Z. Grenell, 
D. T. Hill, 
James Hague, 

G. W. Anderson, 
Emerson Andrews, 
E. IJ. Caldwell, 
James Diu'nell, 
A. D. Gillette, 
W. F. Hansen, 
J. C. Harrison, 

S. W. Adams, 
C. A. Clark, 
P. C. Day foot, 
E. L. Magoon, 

Marvin Allen, 

E. E. L. Taylor, 
J. J. Teeple, 

J. W. Taggart, 
C. Thompson, 
Elisha Tucker, 
G. M. Vanderlip 
T. V. Van Husen 
J. B. Vrooman, 
Calvin Warner, 
William R. Williams, 
Isaac Wescott, 
James Wilson, 

J^Teiv Jersey. 

H. V. Jones, 
C. W. Mulford, 

C. Morton, 

D. S. Parmelee, 
P. P. Runyon, 
B. Stelle, 

T. Swaim, 
Samuel Smith, 


F. Ketch urn, 
J. H. Kennard, 
H. Lincoln, 

T. S. Malcom, 

G. I. Miles, 
P. B. Mingle, 

J. H. Walden, 
O. Wilhur, 
Lyman Wright, 
W. H. WyckofF, 
C. Wordner, 
Gibbon Williams, 
B. T. Welch, 
S. White, 
F. AVayland, Sen. 
W. R. Webb. 

L. F. Stelle, 
John Teasdale, 
D. M. Wilson, 
J. E. Welch, 
W. V. Wilson, 
O. C. Wheeler. 

W. S. Robarts, 
N. R. Snowden, 
T. C. Teasdale, 
Thomas Wattson, 
E. W. Watkinson, 
G. S. Webb. 

Delaivare. — M. J. Rhees. 


F. Snyder, 
J. B. Sackett, 
B. D. Sprague, 
J. Stevens, 

Edmund Turney, 
J. B. Wheaton. 
S. B. Webster. 

Illinois. — Alvin Bailey. 
Iowa.— J. M. Hope, J. N. Seeley. 

John Harris, Supply Chase. 

Wisconsin. — Lewis Raymond. 

Burmah. — J. H. Vinton. 

Southern India. — S. S. Day. 

Rev. M. J. Rhees, Secretary of the Board of Managers, read the 
following communication from that body. 

1848. J CoTumunication from the Board of Managers. 47 

To the American Baptist Missionary Union, the Board of Managers re- 
spectfully report: — 

That their annual meeting was held in Troy, N. Y., on Tuesday and 
Wednesday, May 16 and 17, 1848. 

During- this meeting the reports of the Treasurer and Executive Commit- 
tee were read, and the respective departments submitted to the investiga- 
tion of Committees of the Board, whose reports will be published in con- 
nection with those documents, showing the action of the Board on each 

Abstracts from the reports, both of the Treasurer and the Executive 
Committee, will be submitted to the Union. 

The report of the Committee of Nine, on the Alteration of Article 3d of 
the Constitution, in relation to membership in the Union, will be presented 
to the Union and publisiied. On that report, the Board resolved to elicit as 
far as possible the desires of the friends of the Union, and have, therefore, 
directed a copy of it to be mailed to every member of the Union, together 
with a Circular asking his opinion on the question at issue. In this way, it 
is hoped tliat at the next meeting of the Union the Board will be prepared 
to submit such a recommendation as will secure the confidence and har- 
monious cooperation of all the true friends of Missions. 

The Board congratulate the Union on the prosperous state of the mis- 
sions, and feel that the thanksgiving of the Union should be njanilested in 
the increased zeal and liberality displayed in sustaining the missions already 
established, and in entering in at the " wide doors and efiectual," which 
God has opened in his providence in Europe and Asia, and in spreading 
the " glorious gospel of the blessed God" throughout the earth. 

The state of the finances is also an occasion for gratitude. The receipts 
into the treasury have not only met the expenditures of the year, but re- 
duced the liabilities of the Union. It is however evident that, if we follow 
as, and when, and where God leads us, our expenditures must be increased. 
The Board would, therefore, urge upon the members of the Union the con- 
sideration of their solemn responsibility to labor and to pray more for the 
increase of the Redeemer's kingdom. 

The Board present to the special consideration of the Union the report 
and resolutions of its Committee on the Wants of the Treasury for the year 
ending April 1, 1849, with the document from the Executive Committee on 
which these are based ; and recommend that this subject be made the order 
of the day lor the Friday morning session of the Union. 

They also submit to the Union a report of Committee on a paper rela- 
tive to the Teloogoo Mission, and ask the serious and prayerful consider- 
ation of tlie Union to the suggestions therein presented. 

The Board also recommend that the annual sermon be preached on 
Thursday evening, at Ih o'clock, by Rev. J. N. Granger, of Rhode Island. 

The Board would unite with the members of the Union in fervent prayer 
that the Great Head of the church may vouchsafe His presence during the 
meetings, and fill all the members with His Holy Spirit; and that from 
these meetings He may cause to go forth a holy impulse in the cause of 
missions, which may hasten the day when the earth shall be filled with the 
knowledge of the Lord. 

James H. Duncan, Chairman. 
M. J. Rhees, Rec. Sec. 

Troy, May 18, 1848. 

A Committee consisting of Rev. Messrs. S. H. Cone, D. D., of 
N. Y., D. Packer of Vt., J. H. Kennard of Pa., R. Bab- 
cock, D. D., of Mass., E. L. Magoon of Ohio, L. Raymond of 
Wis., and E. Worth of N. H., was appointed to nominate twenty- 

48 Second Animal Meetbig of the Union. [May, 

five persons to serve on the Board of Managers for the three years 

Rev. Messrs. G. I. Miles of Pa., M. Allen of Mich., W. W. 
Everts of N. Y., Z. Grinnell of N. J., and E. Bright, Jr., of 
Mass., were appointed a Committee to designate the place for the 
next annual meeting; also to nominate some person to preach the 
annual sermon. 

A Committee consisting of Rev. Messrs. F. Wayland, D. D., W. 
Hague and W. R. Williams, D. D., was appointed to confer with 
Committees of certain other Societies in respect to the time and 
place of holding their anniversaries. 

The Treasurer of the Union, R. E. Eddy, Esq., presented a 
summary of his annual report to the Board of Managers; which, 
by vote, was accepted. 

Voted, That the time of holding our sessions during this anniver- 
sary be from 9 o'clock, A. M., to 12, M.; from ^h to 5, P. M., and 
at Ih in the evening. 

Voted, That 4 o'clock this P. M. be assigned as the time for 
electing the officers of the Union for the ensuing year. 

Adjourned till 2^ o'clock. Rev. John Peck, of New York, offered 

Thursday, 2i o'clock, P. M. 

The Union convened according to adjournment. Rev. L. Leon- 
ard, of New York, oflered prayer. 

The Foreign Corresponding Secretary read an abstract of the 
annual report of the Executive Committee to the Board of Man- 

Voted, That the report be accepted. 

Voted, That the report of the Executive Committee, on the 
Wants of the Treasury for the year ending April 1, 1848, be made 
the order of the day to-morrow morning at 9i o'clock. 

Voted, That so much of the report of the Board of Managers, as 
pertains to the deferring of the proposition to change the 3d Article 
of the Constitution for one year, be accepted. 

Voted, That the annual sermon before the Union be preached 
this evening at 7^ o'clock. 

The report of the Committee to the Board of Managers on the 
document prepared by the Executive Committee on the Teloogoo 
Mission, was read by Rev. W. R. Williams, D. D. 

Voted, That the above report be amended by instructing the Ex- 
ecutive Committee to continue the Teloogoo Mission. 

The report, as amended, was then adopted. 

Voted, That the parts of the report of the Board of Managers 
presented to this body, which have not already been acted upon, be 
now accepted. 

The Committee to nominate twenty-five persons to serve on the 
Board of Managers, reported. The report was accepted, and the 
names ordered to be printed for the use of this body. 

At 4 o'clock, the Union went into an election of officers for the 
ensuing year. 

Messrs. D. R. Barton of N. Y., D. M. Wilson of N. J., A. Day 

1848.] Election of Officers. 49 

of Ct., and Rev. Messrs. B. Miner of Mass., S. B. Webster of 
Ohio, and J. N. Seeley of Iowa, were appointed tellers; who, on 
counting the ballots, declared the following officers to be elected. 

HOiNT. George N. Briggs, of Mass., President. 

A. H. DuNLEvY, Esq., of Ohio, > ^. p„ -^..w. 

Rev. B. T. Welch, D. D., of New York, I ^^"^ J^resiaents. 

Rev. Wm. H. Shailer, of Mass., Recording Secretary. 

A memorial was presented to the Union by Rev. J. W. Sawyer 
from the American Baptist Free Mission Society. 

By vote, the abovenamed memorial was referred to a Committee 
consisting of Rev. Messrs. E. Tucker of N. Y., B. Sears, D. D., 
of Mass., B. T. Welch, D. D., of N. Y., G. S. Webb of Pa., and 
J. Stevens of Ohio. 

Adjourned until Ih o'clock this evening. Prayer was offered by 
Rev. F. Wayland, Sen. 

Thursdmj Evening, Ih o'' clock. 

After prayer by Rev. J. H. Kennard of Pennsylvania, the annual 
sermon was preached by Rev. J. N. Granger of Rhode Island, from 
Gal. 2 : 9. 

Adjourned till 9 o'clock, A. M., to-morrow. Prayer by Rev. A. 
D. Gillette of Pennsylvania'. 

Friday Morning, 9 o^ clock. 

The Union assembled, and the services were opened with prayer 
by Rev. John Bates of Ireland. 

The records of the preceding day were read and approved. 

Voted, That the order assigning a specific subject to the hour of 
9^, be suspended, and that we consider said subject at lOi this 

Voted, That the thanks of this body be rendered to the proprietors 
of those railroads and steamboats that have facilitated its members 
in coming to, and in returning from Troy at reduced prices. 

Voted, That we proceed to elect twenty-five persons to serve on 
the Board. of Managers. 

Messrs. J. B. Wheaton of Ohio, J. E. Southworth of N. Y., T. 
Shaw of Mass., and Rev. Messrs. S. Chase of Mich., J. G. Collom 
of N. J., and S. D. Phelps of Ct., were appointed tellers; and de- 
clared the following persons to be duly elected. 

Ministers. Miiusters. Laymen. 

Caleb B. Davis, 3Ie. Isaac Wescott, N. Y. Anthony Colby, N. H. 

Edmund Wortli, N. H. J. G. Collom, N. J. Byron Greenouoh, Me. 

Daniel Sharp, Mass. C. A. Thomas, Vt. Asa Wilbur, Mass. 

John Jennings, Mass. J. L. Burrows, Pa. Daniel Sanderson, Mass, 

James P. Tustin, R. I. Horatio G. Jones, Pa. John Conant, Vt. 

Elisha Cushman, Conn. S. W. Adams, Ohio. Parkes Looniis, Conn. 

Edward Lathrop, N. Y. Lewis Raymond, Wis. J. N. Wilder, N. Y. 

E. E. L. Taylor, N. Y. Charles Evans, Mich. Wilson Jewell, Pa. 

John C. Davis, 1 

* Appendix A. 

50 Second Annual Meeting of the Union. [May, 

The Committee to designate a place for the next annual meeting 
and to nominate a preacher, reported; recommending that the 
meeting be held in the city of Philadelphia; that Rev. M. J. Rhees, 
of Delaware, preach the annual sermon, and that Rev. E. L. Ma- 
goon, of Ohio, be his alternate. The report was adopted. 

The Committee to whom was refen^ed the Memorial from the 
American Baptist Free Mission Society reported as follows : — 

The Committee to whom was referred the communication of the American 

Baptist Free Mission Society, have taken the same into consideration and 

report : — 

That, while it is a matter of deep regret that there should be any differ- 
ences of opinion, effecting separation in action, yet the position of the Amer- 
ican Baptist Missionary Union on the sulyect referred to in the resolution 
of said communication, was regarded by that body as sufficiently indicated 
by the circumstances under which it was formed. 

The other questions presented for the consideration of the Union, as they 
involve a change in the provisions of the Constitution, cannot be entertained 
by tlie Union except ui)on the previous action and recommendation of tlie 
Board of Managers, 

EusHA Tucker, Chairman. 

The report was accepted. 

The following report was presented by the Committee to whom 
was referred the application of some kindred Societies in respect to 
the time of holding their anniversaries. The report was accepted. 

The Committee to whom was referred the application of several kindred 
Societies for such change in the time and manner of holding the annual 
meeting of the Union as might render the several meetings contemporane- 
ous, have attended to their duty, and ask leave to report: — 

That the change contemplated is rendered impracticable by the terms of 
the Constitution. 

All which is respectfully submitted. 

In behalf of the Committee, 

F. Wayland, Chairman. 
Troij, May 18, 1848. 

At 10| o'clock, A. M., the report of the Executive Committee to 
the Board of Managers on the Wants of the Treasury for the year 
ending April 1, 1849, was taken up, and made a subject of an in- 
teresting discussion. After which the following resolutions were 

Resolved, That the pecuniary ability of those on whom our mis- 
sions may reasonably depend for support, is sufficient to meet all 
their necessities. 

Resolved, That our people are under obligations the most impera- 
tive and sacred to give to their missions the men and money which 
they need. 

Resolved, That the most successful and reliable agency in the 
home work of foreign missions, is the personal and permanent ex- 
ample and cooperation of the pastors of the churches, and that with 
such example and cooperation the missions will receive the men and 
money which they need. 

Rev. J. Stevens, of Ohio, offered the following resolution, which 
was adopted. 


Meeting of the Board of 184S-9. 


Resolved, That in our respective States, associations, churches, 
and circles of influence, we will endeavor to secure for the treasury 
of the Union, what shall be deemed our fair proportion of the 
amount needed to the vigor and enlargement of the operations of 
the Union. 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Union be presented to the Rev. 
J. N. Granger for his scriptural and weighty discourse delivered be- 
fore them last evening, and that a copy of it be requested, to be 
placed at the disposal of the Board of Managers. 

Resolved, That the thanks of the American Baptist Missionary 
Union be presented to this church, the other Baptist churches of this 
vicinity, and the citizens generally, for the generous hospitality we 
have received during the present session. 

Voted, That we adjourn to meet in Philadelphia on the third 
Thursday in May, 1849. 

The records were read; and prayer was then offered by Rev. 
Dr. Beman, of Troy. 

The meeting throughout was one of great interest and unanimity, 
and we trust will be permanently beneficial in its influence upon the 
missionary cause. 

Wm. H. Shailer, Recording Secretary. 


Troy, JV. F., May 19, 1848. 

In accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of the 
American Baptist Missionary Union, the Board of Managers met 
after the adjournment of the Union, at 2^ o'clock, P. M. 

The meeting was opened with prayer by Rev. J, Jennings, of 

The roll was called, and the following members were found to be 
in attendance: — 

E. JNelson, 
T. C. Jameson, 


E. Bright, Jr., 
J. H. Kennaru, 


A. D. Gillette 
G. I. Miles, 
J. Stevens, 
A. Bailev, 
M. Allen, 

T. F. Caldicott, 
G. S. Webb, 
L. Tucker, 
A. Bennett, 
M. J.Rhees, 
E. L. Magoon, 
E. Worth, 
J. Jennings, 
L. Raymond, 


E. Lathrop, 

E. E. L. Taylor, 
I. Wescott, 


B. T. Welch. 

J. H. Duncan, 
T. Gilbert, 
D. Sanderson. 

52 Meeting of the Board of 1848-9. [May, 

The Board proceeded to the election of Chairman and Record- 
ing Secretary. Rev. Messrs. T. F. Caldicott, J. P. Tustin and E. 
Nelson were appointed tellers. 

Rev. Messrs. A. Bennett, J. H. Kennard, J. G. Collom, E. La- 
throp, E. Nelson and M. Allen, and Mr. T. Gilbert, were appointed 
a Committee to nominate an Executive Committee, two Correspond- 
ing Secretaries, a Treasurer, and an Auditing Committed. 

The tellers for the election of Chairman and Recording Secretary 
reported the following persons duly elected: — 

James H. Duncan, of Mass., Chairman. 
Morgan J. Rhees, of Del., Recording Secretary. 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee be, and they are hereby 
instructed to publish the sermon preached before the American 
Baptist Missionary Union last evening by Rev. J. N. Granger, of 
Rhode Island, in a suitable form for general circulation, and that a 
copy of it be sent to every pastor of a Baptist church in the home 
field of the Union. 

Resolved, That the salaries of the Corresponding Secretaries and 
Treasurer be fixed at $1200 each per annum; and that the subject 
of the necessity and propriety of increasing the salaries be referred 
to the Executive Committee, with instructions to report to the Board 
next year. 

The Committee to nominate an Executive Committee, &c., re- 
ported. The report was accepted, and the Board went into the 
election of officers. 

Rev. E. E. L. Taylor and Mr. V. J. Bates were appointed tel- 
lers, who reported the following persons duly elected. 


Ministers. Laymen. 

Barnas Sears, Heman Lincoln, 

Baron Stow, Gardner Colby, 

William Leverett, Frederick Gould, 

J. W. Parker, Jonathan Bacheller. 
W. H. Shailer. 

Solomon Peck, Corresponding Secretary for Foreign Department. 
Edward Bright, Jr., Corresponding Secretary for Home Dep. 
Richard E. Eddy, Treasurer. 
George Cummings, 

r^ T> c Auditor 

Caleb Parker, ^ 

Resolved, That the proceedings of the Union and the Board be 
published under the direction of the Executive Committee. 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee be authorized to pub- 
lish such parts of the proceedings as they may deem advisable, in 
separate documents, and in such quantities as may be necessary. 

1848.] Meeting of the Board of 1848-9. 53 

During the discussion of a resolution on the Teloogoo Mission, 
the Board adjourned till 7i o'clock, P. M. Prayer by Rev. O. 
Tracy, of Massachusetts. 

Ih o'clock, P. M. 

The Board met. Prayer by Rev, L. Raymond, of Wisconsin. 

The consideration of the resolution on the Teloogoo Mission was 
resumed, and the resolution was adopted as follows: — 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee be instructed to continue 
the Teloogoo Mission. 

Resolved, That the Executive Committee be instructed to prepare 
an address to the churches in reference to the Teloogoo Mission, 
setting forth the circumstances of the mission, and the necessity of 
increased contributions to reinforce the Karen and other missions 
of the Union, and to sustain the Mission to the Teloogoos. 

Resolved, That the Board earnestly request the churches and 
friends of the missions, in making their contributions, to make their 
appropriations for the general objects of the Missionary Union, 
rather than to appropriate the funds for specific purposes. 

Resolved, That when we adjourn, we adjourn to meet on the 
Tuesday before the third Thursday in May, 1849, in Philadelphia. 

Adjourned. Prayer by Rev. E. Hutchinson, of Vermont. 

M. J. Rhees, Recording Secretary^. 


Mr. Chairman, 

The missionary year, of which the Executive Committee 
now make the report required by the Constitution, has been 
laden with mercies rather than judgments. Death has made 
no breach in the ranks of those entrusted at home with the direc- 
tion of our foreign missionary operations ; and in but a single 
instance has it been permitted to break the circles of mission- 
ary laborers abroad. At home and abroad, they that have gone 
forth weeping, bearing precious seed, have come again with re- 
joicing, bringing their sheaves with them. He whose faithful- 
ness never fails, has crowned "the year with his goodness ;" 
the memory of which fills our hearts with gratitude and hope. 


The following sums have been received within the year: 

Donations, from Churches and Individuals 
Legacies, ...... 

Profits on Magazine, .... 

Grants of U. S. Government, 

" Am. and For. Bible Society,* 

'• Am. Tract Society, 

Interest on Fund for support of Officers, 

.$80,444 85 
5,449 57 
331 94 
4,000 00 
5,750 00 
1,400 00 
1,200 00 

Making the receipts, from all sources, . . |98,576 36 

*The Am. and For. Bible Society has made additional grants to the Union of 2,000 
copies of its German edition of the Bible, for distribution in Germany ; and of Scriptures 
in English, valued at ^74 60, for distribution among the Cherokee and Shawanoe 

1848.] Annual Repoi't : — Financial Operations. 55 

The expenditures during the same time have been, for 

Objects specified in Treasurer's Report, $81,834 53 

Civihzation of N. A. Indians, . . 4,000 00 

Translation, Printing and Distribution 
of Scriptures in Greece, Germany, 
Assam, Burmah and China, . . 5,750 00 

Tracts in Germany, France, Siam and 

China, 1,400 00 

Support of Secretaries and Treasurer, 1,200 00 

Making the whole amount of expendi- 
tures, $94,184 53 

And leaving a balance of . . 4,391 83=$98,576 36 

which has been used in reducing liabilities, with which the 
year was commenced, to $29,295 73. 

Of donations and legacies, the unprecedented sum of more 
than twenty-seven thousand dollars was paid into the treasury 
the last month of the financial year. But that was not the re- 
sult either of extraordinary agencies employed in the collec- 
tion of funds, or of extraordinary donations, so much as of 
the severe pecuniary pressure which prevailed, through the 
Atlantic cities and states, in the months of December, January 
and February ; and which induced many cliurches to delay 
their ordinary collections, with the hope of better times and 
larger contributions. In the month of March their donations 
came in such amounts as to inspire every heart with devout 
gratitude to God, and increased confidence in his favor and 
faithfulness to the missions. 

Comparing the receipts of the last two years with each other, 
we find that the increase has been about 160 per cent, in contri- 
butions from Ohio,* Indiana, Illinois and Wisconsin ; and nearly 
14 per cent, in those from Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont. 
Massachusetts, New York and New Jersey; — and that from 
these States ,$12,163 39 have been received in advance of the 
amount for the year ending April 1, 1847. But there has been 
a falling ofi" in the contributions of Pennsylvania and Iowa of 
about 55 per cent. ; and in those of Rhode Island, Connecticut, 
Delaware and Michigan of 28 per cent. ; — and from these States 
the receipts have been less, by $10,134 59, than they were in 
the year ending April 1, 1847. The net gain, therefore, in do- 
nations and legacies from the sixteen States and Territories em- 
braced in the home field of the Union, has been $1,928 80 for 
the past year. But on those received from all quarters, the in- 

*This statement corresponds with the books of the Treasurer and the financial year 
which closes with the month of March. The progressive increase of contributions from 
Ohio for several years, each year terminating with the close of the Ohio State anniversa- 
ries in May, is thus stated by the Agent. Rev. J. Stevens :— May 1844, ^1,495 95 : 1845 
^2,864 21; 1846,^3,894 24; 1847, 56,157 03; 1848, over ^6,200. Average amount for 
ten years, from May, 1834 to 1843, inclusive, ^962 per year. 

56 Annual Report : — Agencies. [May, 

crease has been no more than $885 18. The remaining balance 
of increase is to be credited to the hberaUty of the two coordi- 
nate Societies, whose appropriations have been expended in 
Bible and Tract operations. 

The Committee have sold the "right, title and interest" of 
the Board in what is usually termed the "Grand Rapids' 
Land" for $13,500, — payable in seven annual instalments with 
interest from May 1, 1848. This property was at one time 
deemed to be worth five or six times the price for which it has 
been sold, and will probably yield very large profits to the 
purchasers. But in consideration of its distance from the seat 
of the Board's operations, the character of the property, and the 
amount of labor and expense incurred personally by the late 
Treasurer, Hon. Heman Lincoln, in fruitless attempts to effect 
a settlement with other claimants, the Committee thought it 
better to make the sale at the price and on the terms named, 
than longer to retain the land. The purchasers will doubtless 
fulfil the conditions of their bond, which the Treasurer will at 
any time submit to the Board. 

The executor of the Will of the late Mrs. Prudence Farwell 
has informed the Committee of the disposition which the de- 
ceased made of her property. While the estate, excepting so 
much as may be necessary to pay the just debts of the testator, 
is left to the Missionary Union, the Will is so drawn that the 
entire balance is held by it for the redemption of certain trusts — 
one of which is a perpeival annuity, of $400 per year, to the 
Massachusetts Baptist Missionary Convention. The estate, yet 
in the hands of the executor, is not likely, in any event, to be 
worth more than $8,000 to your treasury; and it may be found 
impossible so to release the property from the perpetual trust, 
as to make any thing more than interest or rents available in 
the work of missions. 

The executor has paid the subscription of $2,000, made by 
Mrs. Farwell towards liquidating the debts of the Triennial 
Convention ; and it affords the Committee great pleasure now 
to state that the sum of $40,000 has been received for that object, 
while a few of the subscriptions are not yet cancelled. 

The agents, now in the service of the Board, are Rev. Alfred 
Bennett, Rev. John Stevens, Rev. Greenleaf S. Webb, Rev. 
Oren Tracy, Rev. Sewall M. Osgood, Rev. Joseph Wilson, 
Rev. Simon G. Miner, and Rev. Salem T. Griswold. 

Maine and New Hampshire have been assigned to Rev. J. 
Wilson, in which district he has spent nine and a quarter 
months of the year ; and visited eighty-two churches, nine asso- 
ciations, one convention, and two quarterly meetings. In these 
States are many churches by whom the monthly concert for 
prayer is not observed, and no missionary periodical is taken ; 

1848.] Annual Report : — Agencies. 67 

but the number of pastors who regard it as an indispensable 
part of their duties 1o instruct the people on the facts and prin- 
ciples of the missionary work, is increasing; and the agent be- 
lieves that a larger amount annually will be received from his 

Vermont, Connecticut and the western portion of Massachu- 
setts, form the district to which Rev. O. Tracy has devoted the 
year ; and where he has addressed ninety-one churches, eight 
associations, three State conventions, six missionary meetings, 
and ten other meetings in which the subject of foreign missions 
was discussed. Perhaps three fourths of the churches in Mr. 
Tracy's district have what are called systems, through which 
to do their part of the missionary work ; but the cooperation of 
more than one third, or one half, of all the members of such 
churches even, is rarely secured. The agent finds great en- 
couragement, however, in the fact " that pastors are thinking, 
reading, praying, preaching more in reference to the cause of 
missions, than they were eighteen months ago." 

The central, northern, and eastern sections of New York, 
constitute the district in which Rev. A. Bennett has labored 
during the year, — with the exception of about three months 
spent in Ohio, Michigan, and Wisconsin. In New York he has 
visited one hundred and twelve churches, twelve associations, 
and four missionary meetings ; among whom he found as much 
to encourage and strengthen his heart as in any previous year 
of his long service. He has endeavored " by such means as 
seemed proper, to induce all pastors to preach on some part of 
the great subject of missions, the first Sabbath of every month; 
to take the usual monthly collection in connection with such 
service; and in the evening to hold the monthly concert of 
prayer.^'' The time spent by Mr. Bennett in Michigan and 
Wisconsin was wholly occupied with labors truly acceptable 
to pastors and churches, and beneficial to the missionary 

Western New York is the district assigued to Rev. S. M. Os- 
good, and where he has labored ten months of the year; visited 
ninety-two churches, addressed twenty associational and other 
public meetings, and obtained 166 subscriptions for the Mag- 
azine and 35i for the Macedonian. Mr. Osgood regards the 
missionary periodicals " as invaluable helpers in the home work 
of missions," and improves every opportunity to increase their 
circulation. About two thirds of the churches in his district 
have no eflicient system through which collections are made for 
the cause of missions ; but the number of missionary pastors is 
rapidly increasing, and the agent looks forward to another year 
of prosperous toil. 

In New Jersey, Delaware and eastern Pennsylvania, Rev. G. 
S. Webb has addressed about one hundred churches and six 
associations within tlie year. There are churches in Mr. 

58 Annual Report : — Agencies. [May, 

Webb's district who do the home work of missions thoroughly; 
but so great was his discouragement in the last quarter of the 
year that, after having labored faithfully and uninterruptedly in 
city and country, he said, " I could do no less, in rendering my 
account for the quarter, than to strike out one half the time, as 
though it had not been." But the number of pastors who give 
their people the right kind of missionary instruction is mani- 
festly increasing ; members of churches show stronger desires 
to be found faithful in the missionary work ; and the agent 
cherishes the hope that more will be contributed in other years. 

In the district embracing western Pennsylvania and Ohio, 
Rev. J, Stevens has bestowed most of his personal agency dur- 
ing the year. He has visited more than fifty churches, besides 
many Sabbath schools, monthly concerts, associations and other 
public meetings ; obtained 102 subscriptions to the Magazine, 
and several hundred to the Macedonian ; conducted an exten- 
sive correspondence with pastors and influential laymen ; pre- 
pared a valuable statistical pamphlet on the home work of for- 
eign missions in Ohio ; and, as editor of the Cincinnati edition 
of the Macedonian, held intercourse with a large number of 
pastors and churches in all the north-western States. No dis- 
trict, embraced in the home field of the Union, has made more 
decided advances in its pecuniary contributions than that occu- 
pied by Mr. Stevens ; and no agent looks forward to another 
year with more hope. 

Indiana and Illinois have been assigned to Rev. S. G. Miner ; 
in which district he has labored during so much of five and a 
half months, in visiting pastors, churches and associations, and 
in spreading the circulation of the periodicals of the Board, as 
severe domestic afflictions would allow. The full reports given 
of his labors show that he is doing a valuable work, and that 
he has been cordially welcomed in almost every place which he 
has visited. The missionary cause is evidently securing many 
friends among the growing churches of his district. 

In the month of November, 1846, Rev. S. T. Griswold was 
requested to visit such churches and friends of missions in 
Canada West, as might wish to cooperate with the Union. 
Since that time he has visited one hundred and three churches 
and four associations ; and reports a general and growing de- 
sire on the part of pastors and churches in his district to trans- 
mit their off'erings, for the evangelization of the heathen, through 
your treasury. The results of the experiment already made 
have equalled the expectations of the Committee ; but the policy 
to be pursued permanently with reference to that district has 
not been settled. It may be questioned, however, whether it 
could be sound economy for an agent to devote the whole of his 
time to its cultivation. The net proceeds of the agency have 
been .'^1,449 77. 

Besides the labor performed by agents now in the employ of 

1848. j Atmual Report : — Publications. 59 

the Board, Rev. John Johnson, Rev. Wm. Moore and Rev. B. 
F. Kidder have devoted abont three months to temporary agen- 
cies in Maine, Ohio and western Pennsylvania; and, perhaps, 
one hundred and fifty churches and fifty pubhc meetings have 
been addressed by returned Missionaries and the Correspond- 
ing Secretaries. 

Tiie whole number of churches to whom the claims of mis- 
sions have been presented within the year, by individuals hold- 
ing an oflicial relationship to the Board, is about nine hundred ; 
and of associations, conventions, and other public meetings, one 
hundred and seventy-five. The time spent by Agents in the 
work is equal to eleven months, each, for eight men. 


The Committee were instructed, at the last meeting of the 
Board, to " report the whole business of the Magazine and 
Macedonian " at the present time. They state, therefore, that 
the average number of subscriptions for the last volume of the 
Magazine, exclusive of copies retained at the Missionary Rooms, 
was 4,072 ; and that the amount received from the publisher, 
agreeably to contract, was |.514 40; — of which $182 46 were 
used in covering an equitable share of losses on subscriptions 
for previous volumes, editing the June number, engraving the 
map of Arracan, and providing original articles for the first 
eight pages of each number; leaving a balance in favor of the 
Magazine of $331 94, for the year 1847. 

The number of subscriptions for the last volume of the Mace- 
donian was 15,000 ; and the amount received from the pub- 
lisher, according to agreement, from November 1846 to De- 
cember 1847, inclusive, was $116 67 : — of which $37 were 
paid for original articles and wood cuts; leaving $79 67 in 
favor of the Macedonian for the last volume. 

The Cincinnati edition of the Macedonian, for the last 
volume, had 5,800 subscribers ; from whom the editor, Rev. 
John Stevens, received $610 43. The whole expense of publi- 
cation, including a report on the home work of foreign mis- 
sions, etc., substituted for the December number, was $570 80 ; 
showing the balance in favor of that edition, for the last vol- 
ume, to be $39 65 ; and reducing the balance against it, on 
previous years, to ,$29 28. 

At the last meeting of the Board the Committee were in- 
structed to inquire, " whether the additional pages [of the Mag- 
azine] cannot be filled with interesting missionary matter, de- 
rived either from the journals of missionaries or from other 
quarters, without expense to the Board." The inquiry was 
instituted very soon after the annual meetings; but it was 
found that the change could not be made advantageously, even 
were it desirable, before the close of existing arrangements with 

60 Aimual Report : — Membership in the Union. [May, 

the publisher. He places the original articles, described in the 
contract, among the valuable considerations for which he agreed 
to pay what he deemed a large premium on every annual sub- 
scription ; and he is sure that most of the subscribers prize these 
articles as highly as does the publisher. 

The introduction of original matter from home, it should be 
noted, does not preclude the publication o*f articles from our 
missionaries abroad. A sufficient number of communications 
are not received from our missionary stations to fill the pages 
now allotted to them in the Magazine and Macedonian ; and, 
as a general rule, with the exception of such communications as 
are confidential or of a business character, all letters received at 
the Rooms from our missionaries are published in these peri- 
odicals within the month which immediately follows their receipt. 
It might be unwise, therefore, to dispense with the original ar- 
ticles referred to, until their places can be filled by the contri- 
butions of our own missionaries. 

The plan of doing away with the large gratuitous distribu- 
tion of the Magazine has very much diminished its circulation 
in some sections ; but, within our own field, the Magazine and 
Macedonian have more subscribers the present than they had 
last year ; neither of them has half the circulation, however, 
which is demanded by the interests of the cause for which they 
plead, and whose conflicts and triumphs are therein cl^onicled. 

Within the year an arrangement has been completed with a 
gentleman, qualified for the important service, to write a sketch 
of the history of the missions sustained through the Missionary 
Union. The work is to contain a narration of the circum- 
stances which gave rise to the missions of American Baptists ; 
a history of the origin and progress of our own missions, with 
notices of the geography, history, religious and social condition 
of the tribes and nations to whom the missionaries are sent ; 
occasional sketches of the characters of deceased missionaries, 
and an estimate of the results of the several missions. The 
manuscript is to be submitted to an examining committee, — 
and on their approval, but without expense to the treasury, the 
author is to receive an equitable remuneration for his services, 
and the work is to be the property of the Board. The want of 
such a book has been long acknowledged ; and the Committee 
hope that it will be published within a few months, to prove a 
powerful helper in the missionary work. 


The number of members now in the Missionary Union, con- 
stituted such by the payment of one hundred dollars each, is 
1,458; of whom* 661 have been made members by churches; 
354 by associations, conventions and missionary societies ; and 

* In a few instances the residences of members, and the names of the donors by 
whom they were constituted such, are not known. 

1848.] Annual Report : — Appointments and Removals. 61 

425 by their own contributions or those of their friends. Of the 
whole number, 91 reside in Maine, 50 in New Hampshire, 33 
in Vermont, 325 in Massachusetts, 75 in Rhode Island, 67 in 
Connecticut, 414 in New York, 50 in New Jersey, 9 in Dela- 
ware, 143 in Pennsylvania, 85 in Ohio, 9 in Indiana, 9 in Illi- 
nois, 21 in Michigan, 3 in Wisconsin, 2 in Iowa, 18 in states 
not embraced in the home field of the Union, and 43 in other 
countries, nearly all of whom are our missionaries. 

Agreeably to the authorization of the Board, and in com- 
pliance with the wishes of a large number of contributors, the 
Committee have employed a distinguished artist to engrave a 
suitable steel plate for certificates of membership, which will 
probably be finished before the close of the present year. 


Since our last anniversary the following missionaries and as- 
sistants have been appointed or have entered, into their re- 
spective fields of labor. 

To the Assam Mission. — Rev. Appleton H. Danforth, Mrs. 
Frances A. Studley Danforth, Rev. Ira J. Stoddard, Mrs. Dru- 
silla C. Allen Stoddard. 

To the Maulmain Pgho Karen Mission. — Rev. William 
Moore, Mrs. Elizabeth W. Forbes Moore. 

To the Slain Mission. — Miss Harriet H. Morse, formerly of 
the Ojibwa Mission, Mrs. Sarah Sleeper Jones. 

To the China Mission. — Rev. John Johnson, Mrs. Anna A. 
Stevens Johnson. 

One missionary. Rev. E. B. Bullard, of Maulmain Sho Karen 
Mission, has died deeply lamented, and one missionary and 
two female assistants, lately employed at Delaware, Shawanoe 
Mission, Ira D. and Mrs. Blanchard and Mrs. Sylvia Case 
Tolls, have been discharged. 

One missionary and two assistants have retired temporarily 
from the foreign field, Mr. and Mrs. Vinton and Mrs. Bray ton, 
on account of the ill health of the two latter; Mrs. Brown, Mrs. 
Crocker, Mr. and Mrs. Day, beside Mr. and Mrs. Van Husen, 
are still detained with us ; and two who have served their full 
period of faithful ministry, are now on their return disabled to 
this country, Mr. and Mrs, Wade. Mr. and Mrs. Osgood, 
though still connected with the Maulmain Mission, may more 
properly be considered as belonging to the home field. Two 
missionaries are under appointment, Messrs. Lyman Jewett 
and Calvin C. Moore, the latter designated to Arracan ; and 
one female assistant, Miss Louisa Hooker. And there are sev- 
eral candidates who, it is expected, will receive appointment in 
season to take their departure the current year. 

Rev. Thomas W. and Mrs. Greer, appointed last year to Ar- 
racan, have been released from their engagement on account of 
Mr. G.'s constitutional unfitness for an eastern tropical climate. 

62 Annual Report : — Maulmain {Burm an) Mission. [May, 

Four missionaries, Rev. Messrs. Abbott, Jones, Simons and 
Brayton, have returned to their respective fields of labor, and 
Rev. T. T. Devan, lately of the Mission to China, has been 
transferred, with his own consent, to the French Mission. 

We proceed to give a condensed view of operations and 
events in the several missions. 



Maulmain — Rev. Messrs. A. Judson, H.Howard, E.A.Stevens, L. Stilson 
and Mr. T. S. Ranney, printer and despositary, and their wives ; Rev. T. Simons ; and 
Miss L. LiLLYBRiDGK, teacher. 

Amherst. — Rev. J. M. and Mrs. Haswell. 

2 stations ; 7 missionaries and 7 female assistants. 

Also in this country, Rev. S. M. and Mrs. Osgood. 

10 native preachers and 6 other assistants.* 

Mr. Simons sailed from this country for Maulmain, Nov. 3, 
and Dr. Judson and family, who removed to Rangoon in the 
early part of the year (Feb.), returned to Maulmain in Sep- 
tember. Mr. Haswell has also resided throughout the year at 

Preaching, ^'c. — The distribution of labors is substantially 
the same as was reported last year, except that the pastoral 
care of the Burmese church has of late been devolved on Mr. 
Haswell. Dr. Judson is prosecuting the preparation of the 
Burmese dictionary, but since his return from Rangoon preaches 
also, once on the Sabbath statedly in the Burmese chapel. Mr. 
Howard, in addition to the Burmese boarding school, has the 
pastoral charge of the English church. Messrs. Stevens and 
Stilson preach at two of the sub-stations Sabbath evenings, 
also once regularly in the week at some one of the houses of 
the native Christians, besides other occasional lectures as op- 
portunity presents. " The missionary's house is often a 
preaching place." Mr. Stilson is also superintendent of a Bur- 
mese Sabbath school, holding a weekly preparatory evening 
meeting for the teachers. The time of Mr. Haswell, since the 
printing of the Peguan New Testament,! has been given wholly 
to the direct preaching of the gospel. Speaking both the Bur- 
man and Peguan languages, he has had, in Maulmain, " the 
most ample scope, wanting only more means to enable him to 
labor to the best effect. In all respects he seems well adapted 
to his work, and is universally well received among the peo- 
ple." He continues to supervise the church at Amherst, under 
the immediate care of native preachers, and visits it occa- 

* Annual schedule not received. t Completed in August. 

1848.] Anmial Report : — Mmilmain {Bnrmaii) Mission. G3 

Much preaching is performed by the native preachers in 
Mauhxiain. The city is an oblong of several miles e'xtent, with 
a native population of some 30,000 or 40,000. To secure the 
more general dispensation of the gospel, the following arrange- 
ments have long been in existence. "Near the Burmese chap- 
el stands a brick zayat, which is daily occupied, Sundays ex- 
cepted, by one or more native preachers, declaring the gospel 
daily, sometimes indeed to few and at other times to scores 
in one day. Another zayat is in the north part of the town 
near the great bazaar, not so old a preaching stand as the 
former, but in some respects much superior to it. The fame of 
these two zayats in particular has spread far into Burmah 
Proper. In the south part of the town, in Moung Ngau's dis- 
trict, is another house fitted up to hold evening meetings in, 
and occupied by a preacher and his family. One of his sons 
lives near him, also a preacher. For many years a lamp has 
been burning in that house. Many have heard the gospel 
there ; and the neighborhood well knows by precept and ex- 
ample what Jesus Christ's religion is. Still further south on 
the same road stands another similar house, but less recently 
occupied by preaching. Another Christian house occupied by 
two native preachers and their families, is situated near the 
north-east end of the town, not very far from the location of 
the Karen Mission and in the midst of a population twice as 
large, perhaps, as that of Amherst. That part of the town is 
specially assigned to them ; and it is their daily practice to go 
from house to house, to the bazaars, funerals and other places 
and occasions of concourse, making known the grace of the 
gospel. Besides the preachers assigned to these five stations, 
two others understand it to be their particular duty to itinerate 
through the town and preach wherever they can obtain a 
hearing." "The assistants are doing a great work," says Mr. 
Haswell, " and from Maulmain the truth is sounded out to 
the remotest parts of Burmah Proper, as well as throughout the 
provinces (of Tenasserim). They daily meet with traders and 
others from all parts of the country, and make known to them 
the leading doctrines of the gospel, answer their objections, and 
give then) tracts and portions of scripture, which are thus scat- 
tered abroad as upon the wings of the wind. And though some 
seed falls by the way-side, some among thorns, and some upon 
stony places, some also must fall upon good ground and bring 
forth fruit to the glory of God." " The truth is working its way 
into the hearts of the people in town and country." He adds, 
" Our work is a difficult one. It is not because there is not 
preaching, and the right kind of preaching too, that the Bur- 
mans and Peguans are not converted. There are other causes. 
Yet let no one think that our labor is in vain. We are surely, 
though slowly, undermining the strong holds of idolatry. The 
mighty fabric must fall before the gospel as Dagon did before 
the ark." 

64 Annual Report : — Manlmain {Burmaii) Mission. [May, 

The number of additions to the Burnian churches has not 
been reported. Nine have been baptized, who, at the time, 
were members of the Maulmain Boarding School. 

Pi'inting department. — Printing has been executed the past 
year at the Mauhnain press in Burman, both dialects of Karen, 
Peguan and English. No. of copies 26,182, and of pages 
6,566,450. 404,000 of these pages were printed for govern- 
ment and the Maulmain Missionary Society, the avails of which 
covered the current cost of the office, exclusively of the salary 
of the missionary. 

The following table shows the titles of the books, size, num- 
ber of pages, &c. 


M3 1^(33 

5-g 3.-3 = 3 2,1.3 ^.^5 ^»- 

rr 11 ti 






2. Crt rr ° ^ 




^ ^ 1 ^:^ 


1 i 


Kl B^^ tac/3i-dWBC/:'T3C« 



c aW ctptwcatraft^S .-.-.(JQIkicc 



-< ..era f" ..tS^&'-iUq'^OT!" ..^.. 

3- » -• "t 


3 - =-. = = g C o 3 r; c c c 

c 3 • 

sg c 


S S-w S^wSS-w§^ 



3 S5 3 3""" 


a =3 SB 

3 oq 


4^ CO 

— 03 

"■h9t«C0«!^S< t«03<:COtStSCO 

- -?< 

. »«'^ 


?333p3.o =^33. = 3333 

- "Op 

^3 3 


pop p o o p o p p 

P ° 





0)1^00 — — OOrTO^SoCOhS-O 









OC .*^ 



5"" J"" -""o^i^ ^ 

— M 

»- « 






JS _- 










So = o o 8 o o S o c S § o 'o o o o o S 





> ? c« > K p; .» «; i' S 3 ps i' 

173 P S^ IX)<: 03 ^ S^ S ]i; ^ teS 
(B • (5 O P O • «• ^ ."^ p -" 



p 1 s = .^.= |p,< a.| 


£3 ; 



o ' o ■ 

3 S 

Whole number of pages from the beginning 71,610,600. 

The issues from the depository were, of scriptures entire or 

1848.] Annual Report : — Maabnaln {Burmcm) Mission. 65 

in single books, pp. 319,686 ; of extracts from scriptures, pp. 
333,111 ; of tracts and religious books, such as Mother's Book, 
Pilgrim's Progress and Hymn Book, pp. 814,060; and of 
school books, 434,593 ; total. 

Scriptures, 319,686 

Extracts do., 333,111 

Tracts and religious books, - - - 814,060 

School books, 434.,693 

Total pp. 1,901,450 

About one half of the issues, in scriptures and extracts from 
scriptures, were for Maulmain Missioti ; and the rest for Tavoy, 
Arracan and Siam Missions. The school books were mostly for 

The operations of the press the present year are prmci pally 
the printing of a new edition of the Sgau New Testament and 
an edition of the Pgho Testament, prepared by Mr. Vinton; of 
which the four gospels have been forwarded. Portions of the 
Old Testam.ent will also be put to press as fast as they shall be 
furnished by Mr. Mason, whose time is specially devoted to the 
translation of the Old Testament into Karen. 

Schools, ^'c. — In the theological school Mr. Stevens has met the 
assistants three times a week, and, after receiving their reports 
of preaching the day before, has expounded to them, as their ac- 
quirements admitted, portions of the Old and New Testaments. 
Considerable time has been devoted to the preparation of tracts 
and books for the use of the assistants, in theology, ecclesiasti- 
cal history, and biblical geography, and on minor topics ; among 
which are two on " Baptism" and the "Apostolical Office," to 
aid the native preachers against the seductive or libellous at- 
tacks of Romanists. The number of theological students at 
present is small; but " whether few or many, the same labor 
is requisite to qualify them to be able ministers of the New 
Testament, thoroughly furnished unto every good work." "My 
aim has therefore been uniformly," says Mr. Stevens, " both 
to teach and to furnish the irlierevnthal of obtaining a theolo- 
gical education to those whom God seems to have called to the 
preacher's office. It was with this end that References were 
collected for the New Testament and a Concordance begun; 
and after the first manuscript was burned,* begun again." 

In the Burmese boarding school, taught by Mr. Howard, the 
average number of scholars has been about ninety, — sixty-five 
boarding and twenty-five day scholars. Of these, sixty are 
males and thirty females. The following statements are ex- 
tracted from the report of the school for 1847, made in Novem- 
ber to the Maulmain Missionary Society, by whom a generous 
proportion of the school expenses has been defrayed. 

* We are liappy to learn that almost every manuscript of importance that was burned 
in the late destruction of Mr. Stevens's house by fire, has been recovered, copies having 
been distributed among the former pupils of the school and the preaching assistants. 

66 Annual Report : — Maulinain {Burman) Mission. [May, 

The branches j)nncij)ally taught during the past year are the following, 
viz.: — Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, English Grammar, Composition and 
Geography, with the art of drawing maps ; a slight attention has also been 
paid to several other studies. 

A portion of one evening of each week has, in general, been devoted to 
vocal music. Short exercises of this kind have also been daily introduced 
in the girls' department, to relieve the minds of the children, give a pleasing 
variety, and add vivacity to their studies. 

The regular religious exercises consist in the usual services of the Sab- 
bath, with a Sabbath school or bible class. In the latter service the bible 
is made the class book, and its use is not without obvious profit, directing 
the minds and forming the characters of the children. 

Religious services are also conducted at the school room every evening 
in the week. 

Nine of the scholars have been received into the church by baptism since 
our last report, whose conduct, in general, has been in agreement with their 

The amount required for the support of these children, differs with their 
circumstances; and the means for their support have been derived from 
different sources. Native children have been encouraged, with some de- 
gree of success, to purchase their own books, and in case they are boarders, 
to provide their own clothing ; but no charge has been made for their 
board, tuition, or house rent. The actual expense for each scholar of this 
class lor board and clothing has been found, for years past, to average about 
two rupees per month. Ten rupees per month have been required for 
another class of children who board in common, and dress in European 

These have been supported entirely by private subscriptions and their 
own labor. 

For day scholars of this class, from two to four rupees per month have 
been charged for tuition. 

For another class, boarding in the family of the teacher, twenty rupees 
per month have been charged for board and tuition. 

Hitherto the school has been sustained by the aid of benevolent Societies, 
private subscriptions, or at tbe expense of the mission. The amounts an- 
nually received for a few past years from the inhabitants of Maulmain and 
vicinity liave varied from 2,000 to 3,000 rupees. The latter sum nearly 
covered the ex})ense of the school for one year, not including charges for 
rent of buildings or salary of missionary. 

Owing to tlie decrease of the European population occasioned by the 
withdrawal of the European troops from this place, it is feared the results 
will be less favorable at the end of the present year. Still, several of the 
more permanent residents are coming forward with an increased liberality. 

The school has been in operation a little more than nine 
years, having commenced with five scholars. " Its progress 
was for some time exceedingly slow ;" but 

The question as to its advancement did not, however, long remain un- 
decided. Under the power of Christian influence, prejudice by degrees 
gave way ; and from that period to the present, there has been manifested 
a constantly increasing disposition to receive a Christian education. Re- 
spectable Burmans, invarious parts of the town, are now ready to put their 
children into the school, engaging that they shall remain entirely under the 
control of the missionary such a number of years as he may think proj)er 
to require, and with the understanding that in the school there is to be no 
compromise between Christianity and heathenism, on the score of instruc- 
tion, books, holidays or any idolatrous practices. It is indeed generally 
understood that the bible takes juecedence of all other books, and that all 

1848.J Annual Report : — Maulmcun {^Biirnimi) Mission. 67 

the affairs of the school will be conducted accordingly. The school is 
never dismissed to allow the children to attend heathen festivals, holidays 
or worship. No scholar expects to attend on such occasions. Hence a 
pretty regular attendance is secured during the year. The result is suffi- 
cient to show that the Burmese possess faculties adequate to grapple with 
all the obstacles that lie in the path to respectable attainments in science, 
and that they are now prepared to put themselves in the way that leads to 
these attainments. 

The report remarks in closing, — 

But it is not mental improvement alone or chiefly which engages our 
attention. We look upon the acquisition already made in favor of Chris- 
tianity, with a degree of interest still more intense. The heathen are to 
become the inheritance of Christ, and faith is to come by hearing, and hear- 
ing by the word of God. If prejudice against a Christian education has 
already, to a great degree, given place to a desire favorable to that object, 
may we not hope there will soon be manifest on their part a readiness, 
to a still greater degree, to confess the vanity of idols and acknowledge 
" the Lamb of God, who taketh away the sins of the world," to be their 

The school receives sonie aid from Mr. Stilson, particularly 
in the preparation of books, for which service he has preemi- 
nent qualifications ; and " he is doing in it," says one of his as- 
sociates, '■'■ a great work indirectly for the conversion of Bur- 
mah." "All the Burmese notions of rehgion are so closely 
interwoven with their false philosophy and astronomy, that, 
if the latter are torn away from the mind, Boodhism must go 
with them into disbelief." This field of labor is entirely dis- 
tinct from that of every other Burraan missionary, and if re- 

* The expediency of sustaining the Burmese Boarding School having been called in 
question by some, we append to the above the following remarks of one of the Burman 
missionaries, not immediately concerned in its management. 

" Br. Howard has charge of the Burmese Boarding School, and with it the pastoral 
care of the English church. The Executive Committee, we are happy to observe, are 
prepared to sustain this school. They feel that schools are an important means of evan- 
gelizing a heathen country, and in this agree with the sentiment of all India. It is really 
cheering and enough to cause the Christian's heart to leap for joy, to observe the steady, 
sure and rapid strides by which Christianity is encroaching on heathenism, in Calcutta 
and Madras particularly, by means of the gigantic schools sustained in those cities. To 
some of them br. Howard's school is bat a pigmy. He has somewhat less than a hun- 
dred scholars, while Dr. Duff's school, of Calcutta, embraces more than a thousand, and 
that of the General Assembly in the same place nearly as many more. To each of those 
schools several thoroughly educated ministers devote their entire energies. Though we 
cannot do as much as they, must the day of small things be despised 1 And yet in point 
of actual conversions among the scholars, the advantage seems to be altogether in favor 
of br. Howard's. Many cheering cases of conversion do indeed from time to time glad- 
den the hearts of the Calcutta missionaries, yet the most manifest proofs of success are 
the indubitable signs o^ crumbling on a large scale, of the old fabric of idolatry, — signs so 
glaring as ever and anon to stir up the heathen population, high and low, to combine 
their efforts to stay the irresistible march of enlightened principles, and to prop up their 
tottering religion." 

The writer adds, " But if you allow us the school, shall it have but the divided ener- 
gies of a single man? Will you not rather make it worthy of the confidence of the com- 
munity, by allowmg the teacher to give himself wholly to it ? This confidence it now 
has to a very gratifying degree, and it increases just in proportion to the attention and 
labor which the teachers are enabled to devote to it. And must it not in the nature of 
the case be so ? What enterprise ever prospered by being feebly prosecuted ? Let us, 
at least, have one man wholly devoted to the school. Js not a Christian education the 
great object of the school, and the bible daily read and taught, and its principles en- 
forced upon its pupils ? And is not this preaching 1" 

68 Annual Repojt : — Maulmain (^Burmaii) Mission. [May, 

linquished by Mr. S., must remain unoccupied for an indefinite 

In addition to the boarding school, it has been suggested by 
members of the mission that several day schools ought to be 
established, in charge of native teachers, at an average cost 
each school of about fifteen rupees per month, particularly in 
the two extremities of the town. Aside from their direct utility, 
such schools would be valuable auxiliaries to the meetings con- 
ducted in those neighborhoods, and tend greatly to raise up 
congregations and churches. 

The station at Amherst has been under the care of native as- 
sistants the past year, but has been visited occasionally by Mr. 
Haswell, to administer the ordinances, (fee. The school is 
taught by an Eurasian assistant, and numbers nearly sixty 
pupils. The Sabbath school and religious meetings are contin- 
ued as heretofore ; and several cases are reported of hopeful 

Rangoon. — Dr. Judson having made a brief visit to Rangoon 
in January of last year, removed thither with his family the 
following month ; the aged governor assuring him of a kind 
reception as a minister of the Christian religion "coming to 
minister to English and American residents," and approving of 
his object to compile a Burman and English dictionary. He 
found the Burmese church, as was to have been anticipated, in 
a dilapidated state, numbering hardly twenty nominal mem- 
bers, and many of these scattered abroad. A new church was 
organized with four native members, which was subsequently 
enlarged to eleven ; and stated Sabbath services were instituted. 
Two converts were added to the church by baptism. 

But Dr. Judson was not long permitted to prosecute this 
work. A private order of government was issued by the vice- 
governor, who was virtually governor, to watch the mission- 
ary's house, and " apprehend any who might be liable to the 
charge of favoring Jesus Christ's religion ;" the Sabbath services 
were broken up ; and it was soon apparent that in order to 
" keep footing at Rangoon, the only way was to obtain some 
countenance at Ava." Arrangements were accordingly made 
for proceeding to the capital ; when information was received 
of a deficiency of funds in the Maulmain Mission treasury, and 
the execution of the project was deferred. Returning to Maul- 
main, Dr. Judson writes ni September, " 1 remained in Ran- 
goon long enough to witness the removal of my friend, the gov- 
ernor, and the downfall of the ferocious vice-governor, who had 
become the terror of all classes, and particularly distinguished 
himself by carrying out the proscription of the Christian re- 
ligion. I prolonged my stay a little, in order to ascertain the 
disposition of the new governor; but in that I found nothing 
but discouragement. He very soon gave several proofs of strict 
adherence to the established religion ; his reception of me was 

1848.] Annual Rejiort : — Manlmain {Kareii) Mission. 69 

extremely cold and reserved ; and when I mentioned my desire 
of proceeding to Ava at some future time, he did not even re- 
ply. I think, however, he would not oppose that measure ; but, 
in present circumstances, it is impossible." 


Maulmain {Newton^). — Rev. Messrs. J. G. Binney, F. Mason,! N. Harris, W. 
Moore, and their wives, and Miss M. Vinton. 
In this country, Rev. J. H. and Mrs. Vinton. 

21 out-stations| ; 5 missionaries and 6 female assistants ; 30 native assistants. 

Mr. Moore and his wife took their departure for Maulmain 
from this country Nov. 3 ; and about the same time Mr. Vinton 
and family left Maulmain on account of Mrs. V.'s enfeebled 
health, arriving March 21. Mr. Mason, who had left Tavoy 
for the United States to regain his health, was so far benefitted 
by the voyage to Calcutta as to make it expedient in his judg- 
ment to return to Burmah. He arrived at Maulmain May 18, 
and at the request of his brethren at Newton has been trans- 
ferred to that station. 

Mr. Bullard, who had labored with great assiduity and suc- 
cess in the Pgho Karen department, died of cholera at Maul- 
main April 5. 

The accustomed labors among the interior stations were to 
some extent interrupted in the dry season of 1846-7 by sick- 
ness ; Mr. and Mrs. Vinton being obliged to take a voyage to 
Arracan and Calcutta. A missionary associational meeting 
was attended however at Dongyahn with great interest, and 
visits were made also to Newville, Mawko, Chetthingville, 
Krai, and other villages ; and subsequently to Bootah. At the 
latter place six converts were baptized by the native preacher 
Tahoo. The whole number of baptisms repoj^ted in this con- 
nection the past year, is thirty-eight ; of whom 32 were bap- 
tized during the rains at Maulmain, being at the time members 
of the Boarding or Normal Schools. 68 baptisms are also report- 
ed from Burmah Proper, by Aupaw and Prahhai. 

Schools^ Sj'c. — The report of the Karen Theological School, 
published in the Magazine for April, states that its fifth term or 
session closed about the 1st of October, and had been marked 
with increased interest. The number of pupils was twenty- 
eight, besides seven who attended a single recitation daily. 
Average time of study for the academic year, (fourth and fifth 
terms,) not including the class of seven, eight months and 

* The northerly part of Maulmain occupied by the Karen missionaries has been de- 
nominated by them ]\ewton, and may with propriety be regarded as a distinct station, 
t Mr. Mason has been united in marriage to Mrs. Bullard. 
i Report of 1846--7. 

70 Annual Report : — Tavoy Mission. [May, 

twenty-three days for twenty-three pupils. Course of study 
essentially as in the previous year, 'rhe instruction was given 
in Sgau, but the whole school have also studied Pgho five eve- 
nings weekly under the school assistant, who is a Pgho Karen. 
Tiie vacation was to continue through the dry season, to allow 
Mr. Binney to visit the jangle churches. 

The Nornrial School, under the care of Mrs. Binney as- 
sisted by Miss Vinton, has been doing well; number of pu- 
pils in November last about thirty. Eight of these children 
had made profession of faith in Christ in baptism, and others 
give evidence of piety, who are waiting for admission to church 

Ordination of native -preachers. — One of the most gratifying 
and auspicious incidents in the history of the Maulmain Karen 
Mission the past year, was the ordination in Feb., 1847, of four 
Karen preachers, graduates of the Seminary, Prahhai, Kyapah, 
Aupaw and Tahoo. " The examination of the candidates was 
thorough, and well sustained for upwards of five hours. It 
was conducted in Karen, but interpreted sufficiently for others 
to know fully the merits of the case. Questions were freely 
proposed by the different members of the Council, and some of 
the most difficult questions respecting church discipline were 
proposed by Karen assistants, members of the Council." 


Tivoy. — Rev. Messrs. C. Bennett, E. B. Cross, and their wives. 

Mergui. — Rev. D. L. and Mrs. Bratton. 

On their way to this country, Rev. J. and Mrs. Wade. 

13 out-stations 5 18 native preachers and assistants. 

Mr. Brayton having accompanied Mrs. Brayton to this coun- 
try, as was anticipated in our last Report, again sailed for Bur- 
mah in November last, to be followed by Mrs. B. on the recov- 
ery of her health. Since his departure from Mergui, the station 
has been taken in charge by Rev. R. E. Burpe, missionary of 
the Nova Scotia and New Brunswick Baptist Associations, who 
by a mutual understanding is to remain in occupancy of the 
field, Mr. Brayton to be stationed temporarily at Tavoy, The 
station and its out-stations are recognized, however, until a 
transfer is fully made. 

The return of Mr. and Mrs. Wade is in consequence of a par- 
tial blindness, under which Mr. Wade had labored several 
months, and which threatened the total loss of sight unless re- 
lieved by his speedy removal to a colder climate. He was to 
leave Burmah for the United States via England, near the close 
of 1847.* Mr. Mason, as before stated, left Tavoy in March. 

* He left Maulmain Dec. 22, and was at St. Helena March 25. 

1848.] Annual Report : — Tavoy Mission. 71 

The mission has been much enfeebled by the removal of so 
many of its laborers, and the operations of the several depart- 
ments have been proportionabiy circumscribed. None, how- 
ever, seems to have been wlioliy intermitted. In January and 
February, prior to his departure, Mr. Mason, although in very 
impaired health, made his usual southern tour, visiting Kabin, 
Themboung, Mazau and Pyeekhya, and holding intercourse, 
more or less extended, with members of other out-stations. In 
December previous the northern and eastern stations of Ya- 
ville, Newville, Matah, &c., were visited by Mr. Wade. Re- 
peated excursions to the same or other stations have also been 
made by Messrs. Bennett and Cross. The reports are of a 
chequered character. Some of the out-stations had been edified 
in the faith, and their members multiplied; others, through un- 
faithfulness or the entire want of native laborers, had become 
corrupt, if not dispersed abroad. Of some, the accounts are in- 
complete or not received. The following table shews the num- 
ber of churches, members, baptisms and assistants, in the out- 
stations, so far as we have been able to gather them. 




































Making a total, reported, of eleven churches and 770 members, 
of whom thirty-seven were baptized the last year. Others are 
said to have been subsequently baptized by native preachers ; 
Sau Q,uala and Kaulapau having been ordained at Matah to 
the work of the ministry near the close of 1846. 

In Tavoy, besides the ordinary labors for the Karens, public 
worship has been maintained in Burman on the Sabbath and at 
two evening weekly meetings. A Burmese assistant has also 
labored in town and in some of the neighboring villages, and 
has distributed many Testaments and several hundred volumes 
of Burmese tracts. 

Schools. — The Theological School in charge of Mr. Cross has 
been conducted with increasing interest. Number of pupils 
last rainy season, twenty-six. All are pledged to remain four 
or five years in the institution, and longer if judged advisable 
by the missionaries. The principal exercise is in the New 
Testament, commencing at eight and continuing till ten, A. M. 

* And three other sub-stations. 

7% Annual Report : — Tavoy Mission. [May, 

In the first place the class read and recite a chapter, passage by passage. 
When this is finished, liberty is given for any of the class to ask questions 
on any part of tlie chapter with which they have found difficulties in study- 
ing it. This occupies considerable time and usually brings out for explana- 
tion the more important or difficult parts of the chapter. 

Great effort is constantly made to awaken a spirit of inquiry and of inde- 
pendent thought, a thing in which the Karens as a people seem exceedingly 
deficient. When the questions of the class are exhausted, the chapter is 
taken up by the teacher, and such questions are asked and such historical 
and other explanatory remarks are made as are thought suitable. 

In order that constant reviews of what is past over by the class may be 
kept up, the first thing in taking up a book of the New Testament has been 
to write the references of the Polyglott Bible. It is then passed over in the 
manner above mentioned. But when another book is commenced, this is 
not left, but is taken up and committed to memory in passages of from 
eight to ten verses each day. This recitation is commenced immediately 
after the previous chapter has been completed. The whole class learn the 
same passage, and are called upon to recite promiscuously, in order that 
none may get the idea that he will not be called upon. When this recita- 
tion is finished, an explanation of the passage I'ecited is written on a black 
board and copied by every member of the class for his future use. The 
evening lectures of the teacher are also confined to those parts of the New 
Testament which have been studied by the class, and are consecutive, pro- 
ceeding from chapter to chapter. 

Instruction is also given in arithmetic, geography, the Epi- 
tome of the Old Testament, and to a select class, in English. 
" A few of the facts of trigonometry and mensuration have 
been taught, but little attempt has yet been made to teach the 
sciences themselves."* 

The fifth exercise occurs in the evening. The young men most advanced 
in their studies are appointed to take their turns in preaching. From two 
to three evenings in the week are occupied by the missionary in charge of 
the school in delivering expository sermons on the parts of the New Testa- 
ment which have been studied by the pupils in succession. 

The great aim in the conduct of the school is first to have every subject 
well understood, and secondly to impress it fully on the memory. 

Every Thursday afternoon is spent in reading original compositions, 
which are afterwards carefully corrected in respect of spelling, etc., and are 
required to be rewritten in as fair a hand as possible by the author. A part 
of the time is also occupied in recitations and repetitions of the principles 
and rules of arithmetic and in the practice of oral examples. 

In order to induce the habit of correspondence and to obtain information 
from abroad, a society of correspondence has been formed in the school, 
which also aims distinctly at the religious improvement of the students. 

*" A number have commenced the use of logarithms. A class were able to present a 
table of the mean new moons for March, with the mean anomalies of the sun and moon, 
with the sun's distance from the moon's ascending node for every year of the nineteenth 
century ; also of the sun's yearly longitude anomaly for the same length of time. They 
have been taught to calculate the time of mean new and full moon and the quadratures; 
and this without any particular simplification from the ordinary methods. They have 
also been taught a method of determining the day of eclipses from knowing the time of 
any given eclipse. One young man has been through with the operation of calculating 
an eclipse of the moon. These facts will be of great importance in removing the super- 
stitious ideas of the people, and in throwing off their former stupidity. The more intel- 
ligent are already making great use of the circumstance that eclipses can be predicted, 
to influence their unconverted countrymen to seek after the truth."— 7>/r. Cross, in 
Nov., 1847. 




No. of copies. 

Total pag< 
















24m o. 



















1848.] Annual Report : — Mission to Arracan. 73 

Letters have been written to, and received from, other Institutions, and 
some from foreign lands. Thus by bringing the minds of the young men 
in contact with those of civilized lands who are pursuing the same course, 
it may be expected that they will obtain new and important impressions 
which could never be imparted to them by any other means. 

Attached to the school is a preparatory department under the 
charge of Mr. Bennett, heretofore denominated the Karen Boys' 
Boarding School. Number of pupils last rains thirty-two, of 
whom sixteen were professors of religion. 

An English and Burmese school has been continued through- 
out the year, with an average attendance of about twenty-six 

Table of Printing, S^c, at Tavoy, 1847. 

Mr. Wade's Vocabulary, Karen, 
Karen Thesaurus, Vol. 1, 
Eastern Reader, No. 1, (English,) 

" Primer, No. 1, " 
Karen Calendar and Annual, 
Thesaurus, Vol. 2,* 
Morning Star, (Monthly,) 

4,240 698,800 

Issued from the depository during the year 5,925 books and 
tracts; making a total of 853,156 pages, 12mo. 

The receipts of the office for job-work exceeded the pay of 
the people employed and all other expenses by 36rs. 8as. 


Akyab. — Rev. L. Ingalls. Seven native preachers and assistants.} 
Out-station.— Cnida. 
Ramree. — Three native assistants.f 
Out-Station. — Cheduba. 

Sandoway.— Rev. E. L. Abbott, Rev. J. S. and Mrs. Beecher. Thirty-one native 
preachers and assistants. 
Five out-stations in Arracan. 

Mr. Abbott left this country in August, arriving at Calcutta 
by overland route Nov. 4, and at Sandoway in the month fol- 
lowing. Mr. Beecher was also at Sandoway in December, and 
was expecting with Mr. Abbott to proceed shortly to Ong- 
kyoung, where there was to be a " gathering of the people and of 
the native preachers, with whom Mr. Abbott had parted on the 
same spot three years before." It was with a view to fulfil 
this appointment and thus make arrangements for the labors of 
the entire year ensuing, that it was judged indispensable for 
Mr. Abbott to return to Asia overland. 

* Commenced. t July 1 , 1847. 

74 Animal Report : — Missioii to Siam. [May, 

The removal of Mr. Ingalls to Akyab, in April, 1846, was 
noted in our last Report, and the communications published in 
the Magazine have shown with what zeal and encouragement 
the work has been prosecuted at Akyab and Ramree since that 
time. " God has permitted the mission to gather some precious 
fruit, and the prospect brightens for the future." Fifteen were 
baptized at Akyab prior to July 1, and among them were five 
Kemraees, the first converts among that people. The assistants 
at Ramree had labored with good success, and there was a 
prospect of a church being constituted there at the close of the 
rains. — The principal employment of Mr. Ingalls and the as- 
sistants has been "preaching the word;" but a boarding-school 
was taught at Akyab, of thirty-pupils, including eight Kem- 
mees, and a day school of twelve pupils. 

From Sandoway and out-stations no particulars have been 
received ; but in general, says Mr. Abbott, " the accounts from 
the churches are very satisfactory." 

The number of churches reported in July, was thirty-two, 
including those of Sandoway out-stations, and of members 
(55-l-3,523=)3,578; not including any baptized the past year 
in Burmah Proper, of whom no report has come to hand.* 
The number baptized in 1846 by the Karen pastors was 813. 


EktiOKOK (Siamese daparlment) — Rev. J. T. and Mrs. S. S.Jones, Mr. J. H. and 
Mrs. Chandler, and Miss H. H. Morse. 

{Chinese department). — Rev. Messrs. J. Goddard and E. N. Jencks, and their wives. 
Three native preachers and assistants. 
Out-station. — Leng-kia-chu. 

Mr. and Mrs. Jones and Miss Morse sailed from New York 
for Siam Sept. 13, via Hongkong, arriving at the latter place 
Jan. 5, and at Bangkok Feb. 18. Mr. and Mrs. Jencks at the 
date of our last accounts were at Singapore for the benefit of 
Mrs. J's health. They left Bangkok in November.f 

In the Siamese department there has been a growing interest 
the past year. Calls for tracts at the mission-houses have been 
more numerous, and tract distribution abroad, by Mr. Chand- 
ler, has been more eagerly welcomed. There are also frequent 
proofs that the tracts are extensively read and understood. 
Three new tracts have been prepared. The whole number of 
books and tracts distributed during the year was 12,252, includ- 
ing more than 500 Burman and Peguan. 

* More recent intelligence announces the baptism of 1,150 converts in Burmah Proper 
during Mr. Abbott's absence ; also 1,200 candidates for baptism. Seventy-six were bap- 
tized in Arracan in January and February. 

t Later arrivals announce their intended departure for the United States via Hong- 

1848.] Annual Report : — Mission to Siam. 75 

"An unusual number of books," says Mr. Chandler, "have 
gone into the families of the princes and nobles, and have 
reached even the harem of the king. A servant of one of the 
highest princes called regularly every Sabbath for a long time 
for books, stating that he was sent expressly for them. I gave 
the man at various times about seventy in all." 

In the Chinese department, daily morning and evening wor- 
ship has been attended as formerly; also two services on the 
Sabbath, with from thirty to forty-five hearers ; and two or 
three stated weekly meetings. The assistants have been em- 
ployed mostly in visiting and tract distribution ; one of whom 
has been supported since the middle of the year by the monthly 
concert contributions of the church. One of the assistants la- 
bors at Leng-kia-chu. The number of Chinese tracts distri- 
buted during the year ending July 1, was 5,456. The church 
numbers 23 native members ; one added by baptism. 

Printing and Foundry department. — The amount of printing 
executed prior to July 1, both in Siamese and Chinese, includ- 
ing also part of a Chinese and English vocabulary and a few 
small English works, was 8,805 copies, or 78,370 pages. 

Table of Printing at Bangkok 1846-7. 

Siamese, Part of I6th chapter of Luke, 

" Introductory Notices of Christian Religion, 

" Creation of the World, 

" Tract on Eclipse, 
Chinese, Summary of Christianity, 

Chinese and English Vocabulary, in part, 
English, " Job printing," 

" Bangkok Calendar, 



















,805 78,370 

Good progress has been made in the translation of the Scrip- 
tures, especially in " the investigation and settlement of difficult 
questions relative to the usage of important words." The Gos- 
pel of John has been thoroughly revised, and is ready to be 
printed. Matthew and part of Luke have also been carefully 
revised. Much help has been rendered by two of the native 
assistants, who have noted alterations necessary to render the 
style plain and idiomatic. 

In the foundry, says the annual report of the Mission, 

The matrices for our common Siamese type have been refitted by br. 
Chandler, and a new fount of type cast on a considerably smaller body than 
the former, which had become too much worn to be further used. Consid- 
erable has been done for the improvement of other founts, especially the 
enlargement of the Chinese, but the work is not yet completed. We may 
here add that a native prince has for some time past been making machin- 
ery in our workshop, in which he has manifested considerable ingenuity 
and perseverance, and has received much assistance from br. Chandler. 
We think it a good omen that so many of the Siamese are becoming sensi- 
ble of the value of the mechanical and scientific improvetnents of Christian 

76 Annual Report : — Mission to China. [May, 

nations. Their attachment to their old superstitions is almost invariably 
weakened by the light they thus receive. 

The Siamese workmen in our employment have usually attended worship 
on the Sabbath, conducted by Mr. Caswell, of the A. B. C. F. Mission ; 
and have attended daily morning worship with br. Chandler.* 


Hongkong.— Rev. W. Dean, Rev. J. and Mrs. Johnson. Three out-stations; five 
native preachers and assistants. 
NiNGPO. — D. J. Macgowan, M. D., Rev. E. C. Lord, and their wives. Two native 

Mr. and Mrs. Johnson sailed in company with Mr. Jones in 
September, and will remain at Hongkong ; Mr. and Mrs. Lord 
having proceeded to Ningpo in June, in consequence of the 
more urgent necessities of that station. Dr. Devan, who was 
compelled to leave China by ill health, has been transferred to 
the French Mission. 

In reviewing the year, Mr. Dean writes, " We find much to 
call forth our gratitude to God, and increase our confidence in 
his word. While left alone, as to fellow-helpers from our na- 
tive land, we have felt assured of the sympathies and prayers 
of our friends at home, and have enjoyed the presence and 
blessing of a Friend who is ever here ; and the year has been 
one of happiness and encouragement." 

The Tie Chiu church has received by baptism eleven con- 
verts, including five in January. Two of the number are Chi- 
nese iDomen ; one of them the wife of one of the assistants ; the 
other — the first baptized by the mission, and, so far as is 
known, by any Protestant mission — the mother of a numerous 
family, her husband also a member of the church, and their 
eldest son subsequently received ; thus constituting a Chinese 
Christian /ami/y. "Instead of burning incense as formerly to 
idols, they now morning and evening bow around their domes- 
tic altar in worship to the living God." A brother of the hus- 
band has also been baptized, and a nephew is an applicant for 
admission to the church. Most of these are from the station at 
Long Island ; where daily worship is maintained and preaching 
is conducted on Sabbaths by native assistants. 

The other out-stations are Tukiawan, on the main land, 
where there is a school of fifteen boys ; and Chek-Choo, occu- 
pied as a preaching post by the assistant A-Sun. 

At Hongkong public worship has been maintained on the 
Sabbath at 11, A. M., at the mission chapel — attendance from 
fifty to one hundred Chinese; — and at 2|, P. M., at the Bazaar 

* We are pained to state that the health of Mr. Goddard is impaired, and he has been 
under the necessity of withdrawing to Singapore. He arrived at S. March 24, and was 
hospitably received by Rev. Mr. Keasbury, missionary of the London Missionary Society. 
The voyage had been salutary, and some of the more threatening symptoms of pulmonary 
disease had abated. 

1848.] Annual Report : — Mission to China. 77 

chapel — attendance from forty to sixty. At the Bazaar chapel 
is also a daily service, attended by about twenty. A prayer- 
meeting is held at the mission-house on Sunday at one, P. M., 
and a class meets daily at the same place for reading the Scrip- 
tures and prayer. All attending these services, are expected to 
repeat a verse of Scripture daily, and such as are able are re- 
quired to write out an explanation of some passage or the his- 
tory of some individual from the Scriptures. Opportunity is 
given for questions by the class, and a careful explanation of a 
few verses of the Bible is given every day. The natives meet 
by themselves for prayer at the same place every evening. 
The monthly concert is attended the first Monday of every 
month. Contributed the last eight months of 1847, ^20 12. 
Valuable aid in preaching has been rendered by Kiok Cheng, 
late of the Bangkok mission. A-Bak has also been doing well; 
so far as can be judged, he " maintains a prayerful spirit and a 
Christian walk." 

The number of native members of the church in good stand- 
ing in January, including one of Madras, was twenty. 

Besides the ordinary labors of the mission, Mr. Dean has de- 
voted some portion of each week to the preparation of Notes 
explanatory of the New Testament. A revised copy of the 
Acts of the Apostles, with References, has been prepared and 
printed ; and a revision of Matthew, with Notes, is in progress. 
In the last communication received from Mr. Dean, he speaks 
of the arrival of Mr. Johnson. " His coming at the present 
time," he says, " appears very timely, when the cares and 
duties of the mission were becoming so numerous and pressing 
as almost to bewilder the mind as well as to exhaust the body. 
God has graciously given us strength and much encourage- 
ment in our work; and at this new indication of divine care 
for this mission in sending helpers, my heart is humbled and 
softened to tenderness. We give Him thanks, and thanks to 
you, and thanks to the churches, who have sent us help." 

Mr. and Mrs. Lord arrived at Ningpo June 20. Soon after 
his arrival, public religious worship, which had been held in 
Dr. Macgowan's house, was removed to one of the principal 
thoroughfares of the city ; and two stated services on the Sab- 
bath instituted, with an auditory of from one hundred to three 
hundred Chinese, including twenty-five or thirty females. The 
exercises were conducted by Dr. Macgowan, either personally 
or as interpreter for Mr. Lord ; and were usually followed with 
an exhortation by teacher Chiu Sien-sang, who for more than 
a year has professed to believe the gospel. Three others have 
been nearly a year under instruction, and with him are candi- 
dates for baptism. The missionaries speak favorably of the 
evidences which they give of piety, and express a hope of soon 
being able to organize a Christian church.* 

* The " 1st Baptist church of Ningpo" was organized Oct. 31. 

7S Annual Report : — Mission to Assam. [May, 


SiBSAGAR. — Rev. N. Brown, Mr. O. T. Cutter, and their wives.* 2 native as- 

NowGONG. — Rev. Messrs. M. Bronson, I. J. Stoddard, and their wives. 2 female 

Gowahati. — Rev. Messrs. C. Barker, A. H. Danforth, and their wives. 

Messrs. Danforth and Stoddard left this country Nov. 3, the 
former to join the station at Gowahati, the latter to take charge 
of the Nowgong Orphan Institution. The announcement of 
their coming was welcomed by the missionaries with unwonted 
joy. Eight years had elapsed since a single individual had 
been sent to their succor, and the growth of the mission and the 
multiplied demands for labor had far outstripped the power of 
the missionaries, apart from the enfeebled health of almost 
every member of their little company. As respects the progress 
of the mission, the excellency of the power, which has been dis- 
played the past year, has been of God. Each of the stations 
has been visited with tokens of divine favor, and each of the 
churches enlarged. The whole number added to the churches 
since January, 1847, is twenty-four, of whom twenty-one were 
by baptism, including five Europeans. Three of these were 
received at Sibsagar ; five at Nowgong, including four of the 
Orphan Institution; two at Goalpara, fast friends of the mis- 
sion, and "the first to solicit the appointment of missionaries to 
Assam ;" and the remaining eleven, including several members 
of the station schools, at Gowahati. One of the converts was a 
Naga lad, since deceased, the first baptized from that people, 
and" one a Cacharese. The whole number now in good stand- 
ing in three churches is more than fifty; twenty-seven at Gow- 
ahati, fifteen or seventeen at Nowgong and about twelve at 
Sibsagar. The prospects of further increase are encouraging, 
and there are several hopeful inquirers. 

Schools. — The Nowgong Orphan Institution has continued to 
receive the personal attentions of Mr. and Mrs. Bronson, divided 
into two departments, and by its prosperity has well rewarded 
their efforts. At the annual Examination in October, the boys 
" evinced a most thorough acquaintance with the works they 
had studied," and their moral and religious improvement ap- 
pears to have been equally satisfactory. Mission schools are 
maintained also at the other stations, and there are from twelve 
to sixteen village schools. 

Printing depart/tnent. — The report for the year has failed of 
reaching us. At the date of our last accounts, Revelation in 
Assamese was in press, but much revision of parts of the New 
Testament was to be made before the entire New Testament 

Mrs. Brown in this country. 

1848.] Annual Report : — Teloogoos ; Bassas. 79 

could be issued. The Onmdonol, monthly, has been publish- 
ed as heretofore. 

The missionaries continue to plead for the Nagas and Miris, 
tribes resembling in many respects the Karens of Burmah. 
The Bhutias, formerly adverted to, are about to receive the 
missionary labors of the English Episcopal Church, a station 
having been located at Tezpur, to be occupied by German mis- 
sionaries in that connexion. 


Nellore.— Jo/m M'Carthy, James Coy, Elisha, native assistants. 

In this country, Rev. Messrs. S. S. Day and S. Van Hcsen, and their wives. 

The native assistants are reported " steadfast, faithful and 
diligent." The schools, five in number, are in a prosperous 
condition. The English school numbered at the last dates 
thirty-seven pupils, of all castes. Distribution of books and 
tracts, especially at the mission chapel, is frequent. 

A more extended notice of the mission and of its claims on 
the Missionary Union will be given in a separate report. (See 

p- r.) 


Bexley. — Rev. I.* and Mrs. Clarke ; S.D.Harris, assistant; J. Fonfirwnn native 

Out stations. — Little Bassa, L. K. Crocker, native assistant. 
Zuzo— Rev. J. H. Cheeseman, teacher. 
In this country, Mrs. M. B. Crocker. 

1 station and 2 out-stations ; 1 missionary ; 2 female assistants ; 2 colored and 2 native 
preachers and assistants. 

Mrs. Crocker having recovered her health, is expecting to re- 
turn to the mission by the first favorable opportunity. She 
will be accompanied by the Bassa youth Kmanyo, or John 
Wesley, who has been hopefully converted since his arrival in 
this country, and has acquired some knowledge of the art of 

" The state of the mission is as encouraging," Mr. Clarke 
wrote in November, " as it ever has been. Our need of laborers 
is constantly increasing. While we are scarcely able to maintain 
the stations we now occupy, scores of other desirable places are 
opening around us." The schools at Bexley and Little Bassa 
have been well sustained. Two of the pupils at the latter 
place have been baptized, and several at Bexley were anxiously 

* Tlie lamented death of Mr. Clarke since the report was written, is known to all. 
He died at sea, on his way to this country, April 24. Mrs. Clarke arrived May 23. 
t J. Wesley left for Liberia in June, on account of ill health. 

80 Annual Report : — Mission to the Bassas. [May, 

seeking salvation at the date of our last communications. The 
school at Zuzo had been in operation, but was interrupted for a 
time by rumors of a native war. A school was about to be 
opened near Bexley, and others are projected. An attempt is 
being made to establish villages in the interior, to be placed in 
charge of teachers who will give them religious instruction 
and train them to the observance of the Sabbath, &c. L. Kong 
Crocker has succeeded well in an effort of this kind at Little 
Bassa. Mr. Vonbrunn is about to make a like experiment ; 
and the one at Graku, near Bexley, was* commenced on the 
same principle. The children are taught industry and econ- 
omy, as well as the ordinary branches of learning. A part of 
them work regularly every week-day on the mission farm ; 
others practise carpentry, under the direction of one of the as- 
sistants ; and in both cases with very good advantage to the 
pecuniary interests of the establishment. The village scholars 
are supported by their parents. 

The missionary and assistants abound in preaching, and the 
word appears to be heard with interest. Three native converts 
have been baptized. Several preaching tours have been made 
by Messrs. Clarke and Vonbrunn. A part of Mr. Clarke's labors 
has been bestowed on an English and Bassa dictionary, and on 
a translation of one or more of the Epistles in the New Testa- 
ment. The latter part of 1847 his health was greatly impaired, 
as was also Mrs. Clarke's; and the total breaking up of the 
mission seemed at hand. Mr. C. pleads earnestly and most 
affectingly for reinforcement. Having described the state of 
the Bassa tribes before the mission was established among 
them, about twelve years since, and the work which has been 
accomplished, in reducing the language to writing, preparing 
books on the elements of literature, morals and religion, teach- 
ing scores of youth to read both in Bassa and English, qualify- 
ing native school teachers, and raising up native preachers of 
the gospel, and the apprehensions that nevertheless prevailed 
lest the mission should be broken up, Mr. Clarke proceeds as 
follows : — 

We doubt not the Board are doing all their means will allow, for the 
heathen. But when we hear them say that other missions ought to be 
strengthened, and say nothing of Africa's needs; and see our appropriation 
constantly diminishing, we are disheartened. We have no thought of 
abandoning Africa while the Lord gives us any strength. We have learned 
to labor amidst discouragements, to bear privations and neglect ; but we 
are constrained to express our convictions and to plead for Africa. We 
renew our petitions; we ask only one faithful missionary. We implore it, 
as the only means of not losing what you have expended and sacrificed. 
We bespeak it in the behalf of these young men, who are laboring for the 
salvation of their fellow-men; in behalf of the poor heathen; in honor of 
the blessed Redeemer. 

1848.] Annual Report : — Mission to France. 81 


DouAV.— Rev. E. and Mrs. Willard. 

Paris.— Rev. T. T. Devan, M. D. 

Lannoy, Baisieux and Helesmes. — J. Thieffry, native preacher. 

Bertry, ViESLY and Estourmel. — J. B. Pruvots, native preacher. 

Bethancourt, Manicamp, Chauny and Genlis.— V. Lepoix, native preacher} S. 
Besin and Louis Lagant, colporteurs. 

Athies, Cheky and Renansart. — F. Dujardin, native preacher j L. Lefevre, col- 

Meux and Verberie. — J. B. Cretin, native preacher ; F. J. Lacquement, colpor- 

Also I. FouLON, native assistant. 

7 stations and 10 out-stations 3* 2 missionaries and 1 female assistant 5 10 native 
preachers and assistants. 

Dr. Devan having returned from China in consequence of 
unadaptedness to the climate, and his services being still avail- 
able by the Executive Committee, he was invited to join the 
Mission to France, for which, from a former residence in that 
country as well as his native endowments, he was peculiarly 
fitted, and where he had drawn the earliest breath of his own 
spiritual life. His immediate destination was Paris, where he 
arrived the 8th of March. A day or two subsequently he pro- 
ceeded to Douay to confer with Mr. Willard, and thence, in 
concurrence with the views of his brethren, returned to Paris 
to "ascertain what is the prospect and what are the facilities 
and encouragements for recommencing missionary labor there." 
The time had arrived, in the judgment of the mission, "for at- 
tempting to revive our missionary operations in the French 

The history of the mission at large, down to the revolution 
of the 22d of February, has been substantially given in former 
annual reports. On one hand persecutions, fines and imprison- 
ments ; on the other, meek endurance, patient continuance in 
well-doing, and laborious but sure progress. This progress has 
been manifested, however, not so much in outward enlarge- 
ment as by inward disciphne and purification. A few have 
been added to the churches year by year: twenty-three the past 
year, making the present number of members in fifteen churches 
and branches, 200 ; and there are twenty-six candidates for 
baptism ; but the more important indications of the divine favor 
are to be seen in the improved character of the churches and 
pastors. The original cliurches, with one or two exceptions, 
have been consolidated ; their principles of faith, order and dis- 
cipline, defined and settled ; their mutual fellowship recognized ; 
and bonds of friendly alliance and cooperation one with another 
closely drawn. The native preachers have made more evident 
progress still. Ignorant at first, inexperienced, disconnected, 
unsettled in many points of discipline and practice bearing on 

* Exclusively of twenty or more places of stated visitation. 

SM Annual Report : — Mission to France. [May, 

their efficiency ; yet called to stand foremost in an unequal 
strife, and by consequence compelled to stern effort and a deep 
experience of the power of faith and prayer, they have proved 
apt learners in the school of God's discipline, and are now be- 
come " able men for strength." " Here," said Mr. Willard in 
May of last year, " are eleven unlettered men, — but moved by 
the love of a dying Redeemer, — calmly deciding that they are 
going forward^ though opposed by all the authorities in the 
realm, and with vexations, persecutions, fines and prisons in 
full view before them. Permit me to say, these are heroic men, 
— admirable men, — men who prefer the honor that comes from 
God before every other, and whom the love of Christ constrain- 
eth to share his persecutions." 

With respect to future operations in France, the Committee 
see nothing in the state or circumstances of the mission, as 
affected by the late revolution, to abate interest or hope, but on 
the contrary much to encourage both. The proposed constitu- 
tional provisions in favor of religious as well as civil freedom, 
and for the severance of church and state, are known to all. 
The precise issue we may not confidently divine; but as an in- 
dex of the French mind, and of the intelligence and sense of right 
to which it has attained, these provisions are developments of 
great promise. They may not all be held inviolate; nor, on 
the other hand, can all be lost. Already occurrences of a most 
gratifying character have been rehearsed to us. As early as 
the 26th of March, Mr. Willard was present at the opening of 
Mr, Hersigny's chapel at Genlis. 

" It had been thought desirable," says Mr. W., " to turn the present move- 
ment of liberty to account, and the day just mentioned was fixed upon for 
commencing the public worship of God in that chapel, which, through the 
despotism of the fallen government, had been hindered now these eleven 
years. [For notice of this chapel see Magazine for 1837, p. 273 and seq., 
and for an account of the conversion and baptism of Mr. H. and his wife, 
see Mag. for 1838, p. 11 and seq.] The day was favorable. Mr. Pruvots 
preached in the morning to a good audience, — all were attentive and some 
wept. In the afternoon Mr. ThiefFry preached from Acts 5:28. After 
the services, Mr. Lepoix broke bread to the brethren present. There were 
at least 200 persons in the afternoon, — the little chapel was full. There 
was no opposition, every thing was tranquilly done ; not one of the crowd 
of Catholics, who, coming from the church, passed by the entrance as we 
went out in the afternoon, was seen to smile or look insultingly. Mons. le 
Comte de St. Ald6gonde being deposed from the mayorship by the Pro- 
visional Government, no doubt 'devoured his spleen as he best could ; but 
our turn had come, and we rejoiced, not m his dishonoring, but in the 
goodness of the Almighty who had remembered the oppression of his peo- 
ple and had hurled the oppressor from his seat. Had we opened that 
chapel five weeks sooner, or had we attempted to do it, we should have 
been prevented by brute force and should have been prosecuted every one 
of us. Good br. Hersigny was in a delirium of joy, — what wonder is it .' 
From henceforth let it be said, — ' Remember the patience of br. Hersigny,' 
— who, during eleven years that his chapel has been kept closed by an 
odious despot, whenever any one has spoken to him of the desirableness of 
being permitted to worship in it, has uniformly remarked with his usual 

1848.] Annual Report : — Mission to France. 83 

calmness, — ^quand il plaira mi Seigneur.^* The brethren, sisters and 
friends came a distance of from four to twenty miles to rejoice together be- 
fore the Lord on that occasion. 

Mr. Willard proceeds to urge the importance of following up 
the present opportunity. "Brethren, rejoice with us! the 
bands of the tyrant who tormented the saints of God, are bro- 
ken. Help us, not by prayer only, but by furnishing the means 
for greatly increasing our force. All is encouraging in that 
field, — it is a field of the very first promise, — not a spot in all 
France besides can compare with it. Leave us no longer 
struggling between life and death, unable to enter in and pos- 
sess the land. May the question of augmentation be seriously 
pondered by our American brethren at the anniversary in May, 
and may the churches awake and respond to the demands, not 
of this nation only, but of a world, whose whitening harvest 
calls for the thrusting in of the sickle." 

In this connexion the Executive Committee beg leave to sub- 
mit to the Board a communication from the native preachers 
belonging to the mission, dated in June last, relative to the 
need of increasing the number of laborers, and particularly of 
providing, with this view, means of instruction for candidates 
for the gospel ministry. They state in this communication, 
that up to that hour their work had languished in consequence 
of the fewness of laborers ; that fields which ought to have had 
five, eight, and even twelve laborers, had had only one, two, 
or perhaps three ; that they were only ten agents ai>d ought to 
be thirty; and that individuals of good promise had presented 
themselves for the work, who only require suitable training to 
become valuable helpers. "Even now," they said, " the Lord 
has provided against our destitution by converting six young 
men alike intelligent, serious and discreet. They only need 
suitable instruction to become well qualified for the gospel 
ministry. These young friends are now ready to enter upon 
a course of study. Several of them are from twenty-two to 
twenty-three years old; a few years more, and it will be 
too late." 

The Executive Committee desire to be instructed by the 
Board, what reply shall be given to this application; and 
whether, and to what extent, if any. it may be expedient to 
enlarge the French Mission, 

" When it shall please the Lord." 

§4 Annual Report : — Mission to Germany^ S^c. [May, 


Hamburg.— Five out-stations. Rev. Messrs. J. G. Oncken, J. Kobner, C. F. 
EiMBECK (Hanover). — Rev. C. Steinhoff. 
Othfreesen, &c. — Rev. J. H. Sander. 
Berlin (Prussia). Nine out-stations. — Rev. G. W. Lehmann. 

Elbing (West Prussia). Two out-stations. Wiebe. 

Stettin. — Rev. J. L. Hinrichs. 
Memel (Pomerania). — Rev. J. DOrksen. 

PoMMERN. Six out-stations, including Rummelsburg. Tilgner. 

Bremen and Oldenburg. — Rev. Gclzaw. 

BiTTERFELDT (near Leipsic). Two out-stations.— Rev. C. F. Werner. 

Breslaw. — Rev. Messrs. Griedemann and J. Straube. 


Aalborg (Denmark). — Rev. Foltved. 

Copenhagen " 

15 native preachers ; 14 stations, and 24 out-stations. 

The German mission has enjoyed "another year of signal 

The work at Hamburg has been carried forward with the 
spirit and efficiency of former years. '• The preaching of the 
word, the Sabbath school, the loan tract system, the general 
tract distribution, in town and country, by the members of the 
church, the spread of the gospel among the Jews, and the 
bringiug of strangers under the sound of the gospel, have been 
all well sustained." " A spirit of love and harmony has per- 
vaded the church generally ; the public services have been 
numerously attended ; we have /e// God's presence," says Mr. 
Oncken, "and seen him in his earthly temple, breaking the 
heart of stone, calling the dead to life by his sovereign 'Live,' 
plucking brands from the burning, healing the wounded spirit, 
and giving new strength to his believing people." "Nor must 
I forget," he adds, " to record here God's goodness in having 
given us an earthly temple, — a gift which I never expected to 
see when twenty-four years ago 1 went forth at the Lord's bid- 
ding to preach in the coin-ls and lanes of this wicked city the 
gospel of Christ. Onr chapel is now completed ; and we must 
look upon it as another signal blessing that we have not been 
in any wise annoyed by the authorities or by the rabble." 
" Sixty-eight precious souls have been added to our number, 
and among them converted Catholics and Jews." Present 
number of the church 340. 

The general efforts of the church have been of a like encour- 
aging character. 430,000 religious tracts have been circulated, 
and 6,880 copies of the Scriptures, with other evangelical works ; 
also an edition of 7,000 copies of a Confession of Faith, which 

* Mr. Schauffler and others perform much valuable labor, but receive no pecuniary 
support from the Missionary Union. 

1848.] An?iual Report : — Mission to Germany, 6('c. 


has been well received, and which has eflfected much good in 
removing prejudices and erroneous views concerning the doc- 
trines held by the church. Two brethren have been sent out 
by the church, at its own charges, to Hungary and Austria, 
and " both at Pest and Vienna converts have been baptized in 
the name of the Lord." 

The branch churches of Hamburg, at Pinneberg and Elms- 
horn in Hoistein, Boitzenberg in Mecklenburg, HeidenhofF in 
Hanover, and Ockserwerder in Hamburg territory, have also 
been doing well, and have been encouraged by new additions 
the past year. And the same is true, to more or less extent, of 
all the country churches connected with the Missionary Union. 

Numerous and extended missionary tours have been made; 
by Mr. Oncken to Elsass and Switzerland, in which he bap- 
tized seventeen converts and organized two new churches ; by 
Mr. Kobner to Bremen and Denmark, extending his journey to 
Aalborg, where the pastor, Mr. Fbltved, was laboring with 
much success, and had baptized nearly thirty converts ; by Mr. 
Lange repeatedly into Hanover, with numerous baptisms; 
by Mr. Ddrksen in Lithuania ; and by Mr. Steinhoff into 
Hesse Cassel, adding nearly forty converts by baptism to the 
churches in Hesse, though in the midst of violent persecutions. 

From Berlin, and other parts of Prussia where churches have 
been organized in our connection, the reports for the past year 
are equally cheering. 

The additions by baptism have been, to the churches in and 
around Berlin fifty-five, Stettin thirty-five, Memel eighteen, 
Elbing four, Pommern thirty, Bitterfeldt six, &c. The whole 
number baptized in Prussia is 151, and in Germany including 
Prussia 316. 

Table of Churches, 






Increase. | 











■w C9 


























May 13, 1837, 





Jan. 26, 184(i, 











March 26, 1843, 


















March 31, 1844, 








Oct. 4, 1840, 





























a The names of them are Berlin, Spandau, Seegefeld, Dalgow, Marwitz,. Cremmim, 
Templin, Tornow, Zackerick, and Frankfort on Oder. 
b And environs. 
c Average number. 

@& Annual Report : — Mission to Germany ^ 6f'C. [Mat, 

Our last direct accounts from Germany are in letters from 
Hamburg of March 22, and Berlin April 4 ; — in which the 
writers speak at some length of the political changes which 
have recently occurred, as bearing especially upon the cause of 
religious freedom. In the first Mr. Oncken says, " I little 
thought when I last addressed you, that in the space of a few 
short weeks the political condition of every German State would 
undergo a change so great that my astonishment has no bounds. 
The effects of the French revolution on the whole of Germany 
have been such as to raise the nation to a full sense of their de- 
graded condition and to a vindication of their long-withheld 
rights. The governments of the various states attempted to 
stop the mighty tide, but in vain ; it forced its way through 
every opposing element, until the press was unfettered, the 
reign of the bayonet annihilated, and guaranties given for equal 
rights to all. I rejoice to add, that in all the representations 
and claims of the people presented to the kings and princes of 
Germany, religious liberty formed one important point." 

" Hamburg has shared in the mighty movement ; the press 
is here already unfettered, and we have the prospect of the 
most thorough reform in church and state. Propositions to this 
effect have been adopted by our Senate as the basis of our new 
constitution.* I had the pleasure of being present in the as- 
sembly of freehold citizens and to give my vote in favor of 
them. Thus the Lord has with one stroke broken our fetters, 
not merely as citizens but as Christians, and the whole of the 
land now lies open before us for the most extensive missionary 
efforts. We trust, that, as God has assigned the honor to our 
transatlantic brethren to be the first in occupying this field of 
labor by succoring their feeble, struggling German brethren, 
these mighty changes, these open doors, and these prospects oif 
achieving fresh triumphs in our Redeemer's name, will be a 
powerful stimulus to them to render us all the assistance in 
their power." 

* Constitutional Propositions of the Senate of Hamburg. 

1. Political equality to every citizen, especially in voting and being elected as repre- 
sentative, who renders service to the State, either in person or by his property. 

2. Entire separation of Church and Slate. The civil and political rights to be inde- 
pendent of religious creeds. 

3. Express acknowledgement of freedom, not only of political bat also of religious 

4. The freehold citizens and their committees to be elected by a meeting of periodi- 
cally chosen representatives, and publicity of their proceedings, with the reservation of 
an absolute veto for the electors, in the enactment of laws of high importance. 

.5. Responsibility of every individual in public employ. Protection of every right by 
independent courts, separate from the administration. 

6. Public and oral courts. Juries in matters of political and criminal cases and the 

7. The instruction of youth of all citizens to be defrayed out of the public funds. 

8. The protection of national rights by a German parliament. 

9. Speedy introduction of a German code of laws, in al! branches of law. 

10. Free election of the officers for the militia. 

11. Separation of Bchool and church. 

1848.] Annual Rejjort : — Mission to Germany^ ^'c. 87 

In the other letter alhided to, Mr, Lehmann first narrates the 
multipHed and vexatious infringements of religious rights to 
which they had continued to be subject down to the period of 
the revolution. "All our children," he writes, " who had been 
born during the eleven years of our existence as a church, were 
urged to be registered again, and if it were refused, compelled 
to be sprinkled by force and the requirement of the police. 
Consequently I had the drudgery of writing endless registers 
and memorials and petitions; which had all the same result as 
formerly, going the way of all flesh through the ministries and 
offices, &c., till all was refused, and we were again at ihe be- 
ginning. The liberty of conscience proclaimed, though in many 
respects much superior to former /e§«/ concessions, was after all 
a mockery ; and men in office, such as Eichhorn and Theile, 
seemed determined to root up religious liberty altogether, not- 
withstanding the best intentions, which, as I firmly believe, 
were in our king. They wielded their power tyranically, all 
appeals to the king fell into their hands, and all oppressions of 
officers and authorities complained of were excused by them and 
stamped as legal proceedings; so that they filled their measure 
till it overflowed. Not we and our various churches alone, but 
all free movements in the church were elioked by them. Thus 
the time of their doom drew on. It was in the midst of these 
procedures that the great crisis of our revolution occurred. The 
powerful events in France rebounded through Germany, which 
at once awoke from its slumbers and claimed its natural rights 
so long withheld. The most important struggle has been fought 
no doubt in our capital, where military force and system were 
most powerful, and the most determined men were at the head 
of government. * * * I cannot expatiate on these subjects, 
only must say the Omnipotent has overruled all for the benefit 
of his children. All religious restraints were at once revoked; 
and though it will be long before all will be settled by legisla- 
tion, yet, in fact, nobody cares any thing about all such 

Mr. Lehmann adds, "It was just about this time we would 
open our new place of worship. * * * On the 19th of March, 
the day of our political emancipation, we began the first ser- 
vice, when scarcely the smoke of the cannon was dissipated • 
and thus it was marked as the day of our religious emancipa- 
tion. We asked nobody ; but continue since in the sweet ser- 
vices of the Lord, and our joy is exceedingly great. We can 
see in all this the hearing of prayer. For five weeks long we 
had held prayer-meetings every morning to invoke the divine 
help ; as we had resolved to go to the king and tell him our 
grievances, and as this was refused, had again petitioned. 
Now the Lord himself has answered, and in his otvn peculiar 

88 Annual Report : — Mission to Greece. [May, 


Corfu. — Rev. A. N. and Mrs. Arnold, and Mrs. H. E. Dickson. 
PiRiEUS. — Rev. R. E. and Mrs. Buel, and Miss S. E. Waldo. 
2 stations ; 2 missionaries, and 4 female assistants. 

The prospects of this mission, which at the date of our last 
Report were of an encouraging character, are at the present 
moment overcast in some measure, in the refusal by govern- 
ment of the application of the missionaries at Piraeus for per- 
mission to establish a female school. The application was 
made in November, Prior to this, instruction had been given 
at the mission-house, as reported last j^ear, but without a for- 
mal authorization; the missionaries preferring the risk of being 
interrupted in their work to the alternative of pledging them- 
selves to teach the Greek catechism, which, it was understood, 
was the condition on which solely permission to give instruc- 
tion except in English would be granted. This instruction, 
however, was interdicted, and the mission school was closed in 
October. The missionaries were subsequently informed that 
the grounds of their conscientious objection to applying for a 
teacher's license would be overlooked, and an application was 
made, but with the result before stated. 

In consequence of this prohibition Miss Waldo will leave Pi- 
raeus, and unless a more favorable opportunity is opened else- 
where, will return to this country. For the present she is em- 
ployed in the mission school at Corfu, associated with Mrs. 

In connection with the disbanding of the female school, an 
effort was made to put an end to religious teaching, as conduct- 
ed by Mr. Buel in his own house on the Sabbath. On the 19th 
of November Mr. Buel was summoned to appear in court, to 
answer to the charge of having " assumed teachers' duties with- 
out the requisite permission, of having collected children of 
citizens on feast days and Sundays and taught them the sacred 
Scriptures, and of having supplied them with books on matters 
contemplated in article 530 of the penal code." Mr. Buel had 
previously avowed to the demarch of Piraeus the character of 
his teachings, but had vindicated himself against the charge of 
violating the penal code, on the ground that it was purely a 
religious question. " In receiving at my house," said Mr. B., 
"persons of any age or nation, for religious conversation or for 
reading and expounding the word of God, T transgress no law, 
human or divine. So far from erring against the first article of 
the constitution, in so doing, I only avail myself of a right 
guarantied therein ; inasmuch as it says expressly that every 
known religion is tolerated, and its rights shall be exercised 
without hindrance under the protection of the laws." We may 

1848.] Annual Report : — Mission to the Ojibwas. 89 

add, in illustration of t?iis, that at Athens a short time previous, 
where Dr. King had conducted religious services on the Sab- 
bath for many years, an individual who undertook to disturb 
the exercises "was complained of, prosecuted, and sentenced to 
ten days' imprisonment and costs of court." But Mr. Buel was 
condemned in the Justice' court of Piraeus, and fined fifty 
drachmas, and was compelled to appeal to a higher tribunal, 
the " Court of First Instance." Here he was acquitted ; pro- 
fessedly for want of evidence, but, in the opinion of Mr. Buel, 
from a previous purpose that he should be. " Abundant testi- 
mony was within reach, if the court had desired it." The de- 
cision, viewed as it may be, he regards " as a triumph to the 
missionaries and a defeat to their enemies. The discussion has 
showed most fully and publicly, that a man ought not to be 
molested for teaching religion in his own house on the Lord's 
day ; — that it is an unjust and dangerous thing to give to the 
minister of education a jurisdiction over the conscience; in fine, 
that instruction, be it oral or written or printed, is not neces- 
sarily school teaching ; and therefore, it is absurd and uncon- 
stitutional to maintain that any kind of instruction, that any 
communication of our thoughts or opinions, must be licensed by 
the minister of education or some branch of the government." 

At Corfu, the operations of the mission have not materially 
changed since the report of last year. For a portion of the 
year the Greek service languished from the fewness of attend- 
ants; but at our latest dates had put on a more encouraging 
aspect. The average attendance four Sabbaths in February 
and March was above twenty, mostly young men. The at- 
tendance at English worship has ordinarily been about seventy. 
The mission school numbers sixty, besides a flourishing Sabbath 

In view of the late interference at Pirseus, and the somewhat 
unpromising aspect of the Greek department at Corfu, corres- 
pondence has been opened with the missionaries within the last 
few months on the expediency of concentrating their labors at 
another point, where they would be secure from governmental 
restrictions, and at the same time access be had to a wider 
field. The suggestion has been listened to with favor by the 
missionaries, and they hold themselves in readiness for any 
service or self-denial not compromitting the existence and use- 
fulness of the mission. 


Sault de Ste. Marie. — Rev. A. and Mrs. Bingham, and 1 female assistant. Lewis 
Cadotte, interpreter. 
TiKVAMiNo. — Rev. J. D. Cameron. Shigud, native assistant. 


2 stations and 1 out-station ; 2 missionaries, 2 female assistants, and 1 native asBistant, 

90 Annual Report : — Oltawas ; Tonawandas. [May, 

No essential change has been made in the employments of the 
mission the past year, except in the addition of a public service 
in English on the Sabbath. Bible class and Sabbath school in- 
struction is continued, with an increased attendance. The mis- 
sion school, which near the close of 1846 was reduced in num- 
bers on account of the establishment of a district school, after- 
wards increased to more than fifty, including eight boarding 
pupils. Sabbath schools have been opened also occasionally at 
other settlements. 

At Tikvaniina. our brethren Cameron and Shigud have prose- 
cuted their work as heretofore. The Indians continue to pro- 
gress in civilization and industry. A visit has been made to 
Michipicoton by Mr. Cameron, but with little avail; the mem- 
bers of the church having gone to their several places of resort 
for the summer. 

The mission continues in urgent need of reinforcement; a 
suitable helper, it is hoped, will be obtained before the close of 
the year. 

Richland. — Rev. L. and Mrs. Slater. 

Mr. Slater has conducted religious meetings on Sabbaths 
and week days, as heretofore, and for the most part they have 
been well attended. " Those of the church who had fallen into 
temptation, have confessed their sin and promised reformation, 
and some of them remain steadfast." The interest awakened in 
education by the introduction of the " new method" of teach- 
ing, appears to be unabated. Those of the Indians who have 
not been supplied with books, are looking for them with much 
impatience, that they may read in their own tongue the won- 
derful works of God. The Indians in the colony continue to 
number from 130 to 150, but the losses by death are supplied 
in part by immigration. More than eighty have died since the 
removal of the colony from Grand River, about eleven years 
since ; at the rate of an entire generation in twenty years ; and 
during the same period there have been only about fifty births. 
The missionary urges their removal to the Indian Territory as 
the only means of saving the tribe from utter extinction ; but 
the colonists continue averse to the proposition. 

Members of church twenty-five. 

ToNAWANDA. — Rev. A. and Mrs. Warren. 

The annual report from this station has failed of reaching us. 
Number of church members last year thirty-nine. 

1848.] Annual Report : — Shawanoes ; Cherokees. 91 


Shawanoe. — Rev. F. and Mrs. Barker. 

Delaware.— Rev. J. G. and Mrs. Pratt; Miss E. S. Morse. Charles Johnny- 
cake, native assistant. 

Ottawa.— Rev. J. and Mrs. Meeker. J. T. and Mrs. Jones, and Shawbundy, 

3 stations ; 3 missionaries and 5 female assistants ; 3 native assistants. 

The late occupants of Delaware station having been dis- 
missed on account of immoralities of two of its members, it has 
been put in charge of Mr. Pratt, who has been authorized to 
remove from Stockbridge for this purpose. Miss Morse, late of 
Ottawa station, has also been requested to take part in con- 
ducting the boarding school. It was ascertained at Ottawa 
that the Indians were too dispersed to sustain a district school, 
and that the children must either be sent to Delaware, or in 
their own colony be gathered into a hoarding school ; and this 
is now under consideration. The Delaware station being re- 
moved to its new site, the buildings are not yet completed, and 
the school is consequently for a time suspended. 

At the other stations in connexion with the Shawanoe Mis- 
sion, the work has been prosecuted with a good degree of suc- 
cess, though intermingled with severe trials. From Shawanoe 
Mr. Barker reports an addition to the church of eight by bap- 
tism, and two by experience who had been previously bap- 
tized ; and three excluded ; present number in good standing, 

At Ottawa the additions have been ten Ottawas and two 
Putawatomies, beside one German ; five have been restored, 
eight have been excluded, and five have died ; present number 

The Stockbridge church numbers sixteen. Two have been 
baptized and two restored ; excluded six. 

The number of members of Delaware church last reported, 
was thirty-six. 

The missionaries have suffered from sickness and bereave- 
ment in their own families; and the Indian population has 
been more than usually subject to fluctuation and excitement 
from the prevalence of a " war spirit." 

Schools.— The schools at Stockbridge and Shawanoe, attend- 
ed by ten or twelve pupils each, have been well conducted. 
Provision is being made for renewing the boarding school at 
Delaware, as before mentioned, to contain twenty-five boarders. 


Cherokee.— Rev. Messrs. E. Jones and W. P. Upham ; and Mr. H. Upham, 
printer, and their wives. 

Delaware Town.— Out-stations, Honei^ Cre«A:^ and White Water. John Wicklijffe, 
Oganaya, native preachers. 

DsiYOHEE.—CsMiasftfic, licentiate. 

9^ Annual Report : — Recapitulation. [May, 

TAQ.UOHEE. — Tanenoie, native preacher. 

Flint. — Out-stations, Skin Bayou, Grand River, Siud Spring Creek. Lewis Down- 
ing, native preacher. 

5 stations and 5 out-stations ; 2 preachers, 1 a teacher; 1 printer; 3 female assistants; 
5 native preachers. 

All the churches connected with this mission are reported in 
a prosperous state. "Among many professors of rehgion there 
is a decided increase of spiritual-mindedness and zeal for the 
success of the gospel." A more general attendance on religious 
instruction is discernible among all classes. In the meetings at 
Cherokee a growing seriousness has prevailed throughout the 
year, and especially the last five months of 1847. The same 
may be said of other places, where the word is frequently 
preached. " At all the places visited, there has been evidently 
a hungering for the bread of life." One hundred and twenty- 
two were added to the churches by baptism from April 11 to 
Jan. 14; among these were four of the children of Mr. Jones, 
and three who had been brought up in the mission family at 
Valley Towns. A revival of religion has also been enjoyed in 
the neighboring white population of Arkansas. 

The school at Cherokee, in care of Mr. Upham, is well at- 
tended ; number of scholars forty-one. 

Printing operations. — The printing executed at intervals 
from May to December, inclusively, amounted to 587,700 pp., 
consisting principally of translations of Mark, Thessalonians, 
Philemon, Titus and Jude; 10,000 copies of Mark, and 9,000 
copies of the other books ; a half of the same being for tract 
distribution (tracts Nos. 2 & 3) and the other half for an 
edition of the New Testament. 1,000 copies of a "Social 
Hymn Book," compiled by Rev. W. P. Upham, were also 
printed, 160,000 pp. 32mo., with other publications. 

The whole amount of printing executed from the beginning, 
is 945,500 pp. 730,560 pp. of the same were in Cherokee, and 
480,000 pp. in tract form for distribution. The portions of 
bible published in the Cherokee language by the mission, are 
Genesis, Luke, Mark, 1st and 2d Thessalonians, Philemon, 
Titus and Jude. Also portions of Peter Parley's Natural His- 
tory, and of Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress, and tract No. 1, on 
Maternal Duty. The department has had to struggle with va- 
rious embarrassments in regard to type, printing office, and 
copy ; but these are now mostly surmounted. 


The whole number of missions in connexion with the Mis- 
sionary Union is 16, of stations 52, and of out-stations 87. The 
number of missionaries and assistants is 105, of whom 45 are 
preachers ; and of native preachers and assistants 158 ; total 
number of laborers 263. Of churches there are 123, with 10,020 
members, of whom 689 were baptized last year ; and of schools 
44, with 1,472 pupils ; — as in the annexed table. 

1848.] Annual Report : — Missions, Stations, ^c. 


Table of Missions, Stations, &fc., of the Union, in 1847-8. 


s . 





























5 c 

12; =* 






Maulmain, Buiman, 











" Karen, 












Tavoy Mission, 












Arracan Mission, Burman, 











" " Karen, 










Siam " Siamese department, 





« " Chinese " 









China " 










Assam " 











Teloogoo " 









Whole number in Asia, 












Bassa Mission, 












Mission to France, 










" Germany, 







" Greece, 







Whole number in Europe, 











Mission to Ojibwas, 











" Ottawas in Michigan, 









" Tonawandas, &,c. 







" Shawanoes, &c. 











" Cherokees, 














In Indian Missions, 















* Including some in Burmah Proper. 

t Including Bassein churches. 

J Besides schools in the jungle villages. 

II In 1846-7. 

§ Including two colored helpers from United States of America. 

94 Report of the Treasurer. [May, 


Expenditures of the Union for the year ending March 31, 1848. 


Remittances, drafts and purchases, $21,182 28 

Outfit and expenses of Mr. and Mrs. Moore, 609 65 

Passage of Mr. and Mrs. Moore and Mr. Simons 

from Boston to Calcutta, 675 00 


Remittances, drafts and purchases, 5,875 96 
Passage of Mr. and Mrs. Brayton and daughter from 

Calcutta to Boston, 687 50 

do. of Mr. Brayton from Boston to Calcutta, 225 00 


Remittances, drafts and purchases, 2,831 93 

Passage of Mr. Abbot from Boston to Calcutta, over- 
land, 846 83 

22,466 93 

6,788 46 

3,678 76 


Remittances, drafts and purchases, 3,589 04 

Outfit and expenses of Mrs. Jones, 222 06 

do. do. Miss Morse, 205 00 

Passage of Mr. and Mrs. Jones, and Miss Morse 

from New York to Hongkong, 900 00 


Remittances, drafts and purchases, 4,196 62 
Balance of outfit and expenses of Mr. and Mrs. 

Johnson, 473 50 
Passage of Mr. and Mrs. Johnson from New York 

to Hongkong, 450 00 

do. of Dr. Devan from Hongkong to New York, 200 00 

4,916 10 

5,320 12 
Carried forward, $43,170 37 

1848.] Report of the Treasurer. ^ 

Brought forward, $43,170 37 


Remittances, drafts and purchases, 6,326 05 

Outfit and expenses of Mr. and Mrs. Stoddard, 655 44 

do do. Mr. and Mrs. Danforth, 510 58 
Passage of Messrs. Stoddard and Danforth and their 

wives from Boston to Calcutta, 900 00 
do. of Mrs. Brown's attendant from St. Helena to 

Calcutta, 100 81 

8,492 88 


Remittances and drafts, 548 69 

Expenses of Mr. Van Husen and family, 465 91 

do. ofMr. Day and family, 75150 

1,766 10 


Drafts and purchases, 3,151 79 


Remittances, drafts and purchases, 2,552 17 


Remittances and drafts, 3,739 02 

Passage of Dr. Devan frotn New York to Havre, 100 00 

3,839 02 


Remittances and drafts, 2,506 00 


Drafts and purchases, 1,967 71 


Drafts and purchases. 

Less this amount received from the U. S., 


Drafts and payments. 

Less this amount received from the U. S.. 

3,523 53 
1,950 00 

1,573 53 


358 04 
350 00 

8 04 


Drafts and payments $1,700, defrayed by U. S. ap- 

Carried forward, $69,027 61 


Report of the Treasurer. 

Brought forward, 

$69,027 61 


Salary of Rev. S. T. Griswold 15 months, 

Travelling expenses, &c., of do. do., 

Salary of Rev. A. Bennett 14 months, 

Travelling expenses, &c., of do. do.. 

Salary of Rev. J. Stevens 1 year. 

Travelling expenses, &c., of do. do., 

Salary of Rev. O. Tracy 1 year, 

Travelling expenses, &c., of do. do.. 

Salary of Rev. S. M. Osgood 10 months, 

Travelling expenses, &c., of do. do., 

Salary of Rev. J. Wilson 9i mouths. 

Travelling expenses, &c., of do. do., 

Salary of Rev. G. S. Webb 8 months, 

Travelling expenses, &c., of do. do., 

Salary of Rev. J. Johnson 3i months, 

Travelling expenses of do. do.. 

Salary of Rev. S. G. Miner 2i months. 

Travelling expenses, &c., of do. do., 

Salary of Rev. Wm. Moore 6 weeks. 

Travelling expenses, &c., of do. do.. 

Rev. S. M. Osgood's travelling expenses 5 months as 

temporary agent. 
Travelling expenses of missionaries acting as agents 

while in this country. 
Rev. E. Bright, Jr.'s, travelling expenses, 
Deputations to attend anniversaries, &c., 

700 00 

121 67 

700 00 

67 12 

800 00 

243 87 

600 00 

144 92 

500 00 

103 02 

462 50 

160 98 

533 33 

71 75 

145 84 

as 50 

125 00 

9 52 

50 00 

17 03 

83 99 

182 29 

235 17 

58 50 

6,150 00 


500 copies "Reflex Influence of Missions," 

750 do. Annual Report, 
3000 do. Abstract of do., 
Extra expense of Magazine for July, 1847, 
188 vols, of Magazine for file and distribution, 
" Appeal of a Layman," 

18 00 

54 67 

115 00 

231 47 

94 00 

5 50 

2 00 

520 64 


Salary of Rev. S. Peck for the year ending March 

31, 1848, $1200 ; less $400 received from fund for 

this purpose, 
Salary of Rev. E. Bright, Jr., $1200 ; less $400 as 

Balance of salary of do. for the year ending March 

31, 1847, 
Clerk hire, 

800 00 
800 00 

133 33 
350 00 

2,083 33 

Carried forward, $77,781 58 

1848.] Report of the Treasurer. 97 

Brought forward, $77,781 58 


Salary of the Treasurer for the year ending March 
31, 1848, $1200 ; less $400 received from fund 
for this purpose, 800 00 

Clerk hire, 350 00 

1,150 00 


Rent of rooms, 

Furniture, fuel and gas light, 

Blank books and stationery. 

Periodicals and binding books, 

Books for library. 

Missionary maps, 

Postage of letters, papers and pamphlets, 

Freight, cartage, wrapping paper, twine, &c., 

Interest on money borrowed, 

Base coin, counterfeit notes and discount on uncur- 

rent money. 
Legal documents and counsel, 
Copying records, &c.. 
Corporate seal, 
Hannah Harpham's annuity. 
Messenger and porter, care of rooms, &c., 
Expense attending the ordination and designation 

of missionaries, 
Travelling expenses of missionary candidates, 
do, of Foreign Secretary to armual meeting of the 

Union, and visiting missionary candidates, 
do. of Home Secretary to annual meeting of the 

Incidental expenses. 

Total expenditures of the Union, 

Balance for which the Union was in debt April 1, 1847, 

430 00 

108 46 

85 52 

47 01 

40 50 

42 00 

331 16 

41 59 

869 83 

269 06 

14 50 

11 50 

]5 00 

50 00 

156 00 

43 15 

119 20 

104 90 

77 50 

46 07 

2,902 95 

$81,834 53 


33,687 56 

$115,522 09 

Receipts of the. Union during the year ending March 31, 1848. 

Donations as acknowledged in Missionary Magazine, $80,444 85 
Legacies " « " « " 5,449 57 

85,894 42 

Received from the Magazine, 331 94 

$86,226 36 
Balance for which the Union is in debt April 1, 1848, 29,295 73 

$115,522 09 

98 Report of the Treasurer. [May, 

This fund amounts, as last year, to $20,000 00 


'Balance on hand April 1, 1847, 20 00 

Received during the year for interest on Permanent 

Fund, 1,200 00 

1,220 00 
Paid balance of salaries of Secretaries and Treasurer, 1,200 00 

Balance on hand April 1, 1848, 20 00 

E. E. 

Richard E. Eddy, Treasurer of A. B. M. Union. 
Missionary Rooms, Boston, April 1, 1848. 

This may certify that the undersigned have examined the foregoing ac- 
count, and find it correctly cast and properly vouched ; showing the receipts 
during the past year to have been, in donations and legacies, eighty-Jive 
thousand eight hundred ninety-four dollars and forty-two cents ; profits of 
Magazine three hundred thirty-one dollars and ninety-four cents, making 
in all, eighty-six thousand two hundred tioenty-six dollars and thirty-six cents, 
received ; and the disbursements, during the same period, for the support 
of the various missions, etc., to have been eighty-one thousand eight hundred 
thirty-four dollars and fifty-three cents ; leaving a balance of twenty-nine thou- 
sand two hundred ninety-Jive dollars and seventy-three cents against the Trea- 
sury on the first of April, one thousand eight hundred and forty-eight. 

Charles D. Gould,? ^ ,... ^ ... 
Joshua Loring, \ '^"'^^'^"^ Committee. 

Boston, April 28, 1848. 

1848.] Constitutwn of the A. B. M. Union. 99 




1. This Associatioa shall be styled The American Baptist Missionary Union. 

2. The single object of this Union shall be to diffuse the knowledge of the religion of 
Jesus Christ, by means of missions, throughout the world. 

3. This Union shall be composed of Life Members. All the members of the Baptist 
General Convention who may be present at the adoption of this Constitution, shall be 
members for life of the Union. Other persons may be constituted Life Members by the 
payment, at one time, of not less than one hundred dollars. 

4. The Union shall meet annually on the third Thursday of May, or at such other 
time, and at such place, as it may appoint. At every such annual meeting the Union shall 
elect by ballot a President, two Vice Presidents, a Recording Secretary, and one third of 
a Board of Managers. 

At a meeting to be held immediately after the adoption of this Constitution, the Union 
shall elect an entire Board of Managers, consisting of seventy-five persons, at least one 
third of whom shall not be ministers of the gospel. Said Board shall be elected in three 
equal classes, the first to go out of office at the first annual meeting ; and thus, in regu- 
lar succession, one third of the Board shall go out of office at each annual meeting, and 
their places shall be supplied by a new election. In every case, the members whose 
term of service shall thus expire, shall be re-eligible. 

5. The President, or in his absence one of the Vice Presidents, shall preside in all 
meetings of the Union. 

6. All the officers of the Union and its Board of Managers shall continue to discharge 
the duties assigned to them respectively, until superseded by a new election. 

7. Special meetings of the Union shall be called by the President, or, in case of his 
death or absence from the country, by either of the Vice Presidents, upon application 
from the Board of Managers. 


8. All members of the Union may attend the meetings of the Board of Managers, and 
deliberate on all questions, but members of the Board only shall vote. 

9. Immediately after the annual meeting of the Union, the Board of Managers shall 
meet and elect by ballot a Chairman ; a Recording Secretary ; an Executive Committee 
of nine, not more than five of whom shall be ministers of the gospel ; as many Corres- 
ponding Secretaries as they may judge to be necessary ; a Treasurer ; and an Auditing 
Committee of two, who shall not be ministers of the gospel. At this meeting the Board 
shall determine the salaries of the Corresponding Secretaries and Treasurer, and give 
such instructions to the Executive Committee as may be necessary to regulate their plans 
of action for the ensuing year. The Board shall also have power, whenever they think it 
necessary, to appoint an Assistant Treasurer, and to specify his duties and fix his com- 

10. The Board shall meet annually at such place as may have been appointed for the 
annual meeting of the Union, at least two days previous to such meeting, to hear the re- 
ports of the Executive Committee, the Treasurer, and the Auditing Committee, and to 
review with care the proceedings of the past year, the result of which shall be submitted 
to the Union. 

11. Special meetings of the Board may be called by the Executive Committee, when- 
ever, in their judgment, occasion may require. A printed notice of the time, place, and 
object or objects of such meetings, shall be sent, at least six weeks in anticipation, to 
every member of the Board. 

12. All officers appointed by the Board shall continue to discharge the duties assigned 
to them respectively, until superseded by a new election. At all meetings of the Board 
fifteen shall be a quorum for business. 


13. The Executive Committee shall hold its meetings at such times and places as 
they may appoint. A majority of the whole number shall be a quorum for business. The 
Corresponding Secretaries and Treasurer shall not be members of the Committee, but 
they shall attend its meetings, and communicate any information in their possession per- 
taining to their respective departments, and aid the Committee in its deliberations. The 
Committee shall have power to appoint its own Chairman and Recording Secretary, and 
to fill any vacancy that may occur in their own number. 

14. It shall be the duty of the Executive Committee to carry into effect all the orders 
of the Board of Managers ; to designate, by advice of the Board, the places where mis- 


100 ConstUution of the A. B. M. Union. [May, 

sions shall be attempted, and to establish and superintend the same; to appoint, instruct, 
and direct all the missionaries of the Board, and to fix their compensation ; to direct the 
Corresponding Secretaries and Treasurer in the discharge of their duties; to make all 
appropriations to be paid out of the Treasury ; to appoint agents for the collection of 
funds, and to prescribe their duties and arrange their compensation ; and in general to 
perform all duties necessary to promote the object of the Union, provided the same be 
not contrary to this Constitution or the instructions of the Board of Managers. 

15. The Executive Committee shall present to the Board of Managers, at its annual 
meeting, a report containing a full account of their doings during the preceding year; of 
the condition and prospects of every missionary station ; of their plans for the enlarge- 
ment or contraction of their sphere of operations; and in general giving all such infor- 
mation as will enable the Board to decide correctly respecting the various subjects on 
which it is their duty, as the agents of the Union, to form or express an opinion. 

16. The Executive Committee shall have power, by a vote of two thirds of the whole 
number, to remove, for sufficient cause, any Corresponding Secretary, Treasurer, Audit- 
ing Committee, or Missionary, and to appoint others in their places ; being always re- 
sponsible for such exercise of their power to the Board of Managers. 

17. In case of the death or resignation of a Corresponding Secretary, Treasurer, or 
member of the Auditing Committee, the Executive Committee shall have power to sup- 
ply the vacancy until the next meeting of the Board of Managers. 


18. The Corresponding Secretaries shall conduct the correspondence of the Board 
and of the Executive Committee, excepting such as shall relate to the Treasurer's de- 
partment, and perform such other duties as the Board or the Executive Committee may 
from time to time require. They shall preserve copies of all their official correspond- 
ence, which shall at all times be accessible to any member of the Board or of the Execu- 
tive Committee. 


19. It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to take charge of all moneys and other pro- 
perty contributed to the 'Freasury of the Union, and to give receipts therefor; to keep 
safely all the moneys and funds of the Union, and all their evidences of property ; to keep 
fair and accurate accounts of all moneys received and expended ; to invest and deposite 
moneys, and make payments and remittances according to the directions of the Execu- 
tive Committee ; to exhibit his books, accounts, vouchers, and evidences of property, 
whenever required, to the Board or to the Executive and Auditing Committees ; to make 
out an annual statement of receipts and payments, and of the condition of the permanent 
funds and other property, for the information of the Board of Managers ; and to perform 
such other acts as may be necessary to the faithful discharge of the duties of his office. 


20. The Auditing Committee shall not be members of the Executive Committee, hut 
shall at any time, when requested, attend its meetings to give information respecting the 
state of the Treasury. It shall be their duty once a month to examine the books of the 
Treasurer, particularly and thoroughly, with all the vouchers and evidences of property 
thereto belonging. A certificate of the result of this examination shall be entered upon 
the books of the Treasurer, and a copy furnished to the Executive Committee to be en- 
tered upon their records. They shall also examine the annual statement of the Treasu- 
rer, and give a written certificate of the result to be entered upon the records of the 
Board of Managers. 


21. The President, Vice Presidents, and Recording Secretary of the Union, the mem- 
bers of the Board of Managers, the Executive Committee, the Corresponding Secreta- 
ries, the Treasurer, the Auditing ('onimittee, and all missionaries employed by the Ex- 
ecutive Committee, shall be members in good standing of regular Baptist churches. 

22. All moneys contributed to the Treasury of the Union shall be expended at the 
discretion of the Executive Committee, except such as may be appropriated by the Board 
of Managers for the salaries of the Corresponding Secretaries and Treasurer; but mon- 
eys or other property given for specified objects shall be appropriated according to the 
will of the donors, provided such an application shall not be contrary to the provisions of 
this Constitution, or to the instructions of the Board of Managers, in which case they 
shall be returned to the donors or their lawful agents. 

23. The Union, the Board of Managers, and the Executive Committee, shall each 
have power to adopt such By-Laws or Rules of Order as may be necessary for the gov- 
ernment of their own proceedings, provided always that no such regulations shall con- 
travene any part or principle of this Constitution. 

24. Alterations may be made in this Constitution only upon recommendation by the 
Board of Managers, and at au annual meeting of the Union, by a vole of two thirds of 
the members present. 


Board of Managers for 1848-9. 


Board of Managers for 1848 — 9. 


D. Newton Sheldon, Waterville, Me. 
Elijah Hutchinson, Windsor, Vt. 
Ebenezer Nelson, Middleboro', Ms. 
Lemuel Porter, Lowell, Ms. 
Thorndike C. Jameson, Providence, R. 
Dwight Ives, Suffield, Ct. 
Elisha Tucker, New York. 
Bartholomew T. Welch, Albany, N. Y. 
Pharcellus Church, Rochester, N. Y. 
Edmund W. Dickinson, Elmira, N. Y. 
Edward Bright, Jr., Boston, Ms. 
Joseph H. Kennard, Philadelphia, Pa. 
George I. Miles, " 

John Stevens, Cincinnati, O. 
Alvin Bailey, Jacksonville, III. 
Marvin Allen, Adrian, Mich. 

Isaac Davis, Worcester, Ms. 
Jefferson Borden, Fall River, Ms^ 
Michael Shepard, Salem, Ms. 
Oren Sage, Rochester, N. Y. 
William Colgate, New York. 
John R. Ludlow, " 

Samuel Smith, New Brunswick, N. J. 
Varnum J. Bates, Providence, R. I. 
Samuel Trevor, Cincinnati, O. 



Araariah Kalloch, Augusta, Me. 
Dura D. Pratt, Nashua, N. H. 
Thomas F. Caldicolt, Roxbury, Ms. 
Greenleaf S. Webb, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Francis Wayland, Providence, R. I. 
Alfred Bennett, Homer, N. Y. 
Jonas G. Warren, Chicopee, Ms. 
William R. Williams, New York. 
Nathaniel Kendrick, Hamilton, N. Y. 
Charles G. Sommers, New York. 
Levi Tucker, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Morgan J. Rhees, Wilmington, Del. 
Abraham D. Gillette, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Elias L. Magoon, Cincinnati, O. 
Ezra D. Owen, Indianapolis, la. 
John M. Peck, Rock Spring, 111. 

Laymen . 
James H. Duncan, Haverhill, Msj 
Jonathan Bacheller, Lynn, Ms. 
Albert Day, Hartford, Ct. 
John H. Smith, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
David A. Bokee, " 
William H. Munn, New York. 
Timothy Gilbert, Boston, Ms. 
William Bucknell, Jr., Philadelphia;, Pa 
Henry Marchant, Providence, R. I. 


Ministers . 
Caleb B. Davis, Paris, Me. 
Edmund Worth, Fisherville, N. H. 
Daniel Sharp, Boston, Ms. 
John Jennings, Worcester, Ms. 
John P. Tustin, Warren, R. I. 
Elisha Cushman, Deep River, Ct. 
Edward Lathrop, New York. 
Elisha E. L. Taylor, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Isaac Wescott, Stillwater, N. Y. 
J. G. CoUom, Greenwich, N. J. 
Cornelius A. Thomas, Brandon, Vt. 
J. Lansing Burrows, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Horatio G. Jones, Leverington, Pa. 

Seymour W. Adams, Cleaveland, O'. 
Lewis Raymond, Milwaukie, Wis. 
Charles Evans, Saline, Mich. 


Anthony Colby, New London, Nw it. 
Byron Greenough, Portland, Me. 
Asa Wilbur, Boston, Ms. 
Daniel Sanderson, Brookline, Ms. 
John Conant, Brandon, Vt. 
Parkes Loom'is, Suffield, Ct. 
John N. Wilder, Albany, N. Y. 
Wilson Jewell, Philadelphia, Pa* 
John C. Davis, " 


Life Members of the Union. 


lAfe Members of the Union. 

(By the payment of One Hundred Dollars.) 

Abbott Rev E. L., Sandoway, Arracan. 
Abbott Charles F., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Adams Rev Paul S., South Reading, Ms. 
Adams George, New York city. 
Adams Nathaniel, Roxbury, Ms. 
Adams Rev Seymour W., Cleveland, O. 
Adams Rev J. N., Gilbertsville, N. Y. 
Ainsworth Rev Spencer S., Panama, N. Y, 
Allen Rev L. B,, Thomaston, Me. 
Allen Rev Marvin, Adrian, Mich. 
Allen Rev Ira M., New York city, 
Allen Ethan, Norwich, Ct. 
Allen Mrs Sarah E., " 
Allen Joseph, Rutland, Vt. 
Allen Rev John, Mansfield, Ms. 
Allen Thomas, Wilmington, Del. 
Aller Amos, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Aldrich Rev J,, Framingham, Ms. 
Alton Rev S. D., Fulton Haven, O. 
Allgood Rev Wm., West Union, O. 
Alcott Rev Dennison, Westmoreland, N. Y. 
Amory Peter B,, New York city. 
Anderson George W., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Anderson Rev T. D., Washington, D. C. 
Andrews William, Providence, R. I. 
Andrews Rev Emerson, Philadelphia, Pa, 
Andress Rev L., Chester, O. 
Anthony Lorenzo D., Providence, R. I, 
Appleton John W., Portland, Me. 
Arnold Rev A. N., Corfu, Ionian Isl. 
Ainold Wm. E., Rochester, N. Y. 
Arnold Mrs Frances R., Providence, R, I, 
Arrison Matthew, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Arrison Mrs Matthew, " 
Austin Rev Linus S., Akron, O, 
Auner Charles H., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Ayres Oliver, Boston, Ms. 
Ayer Rev Oliver, Dover, N. H. 
Barnhurst Joseph, Philadelphia, Pa, 
Barbour Harriet L., Hartford, Ct. 
Basset Z. D., Hyannis, Ms. 
Bates Varnum J., Providence, R, I. 
Bates Rev Luman C, Canal, N. Y. 
Babcock Rufus, D. D., New Bedford, Ms. 
Babcock Charles, New Hartford, N, Y. 
Baldwin Mrs M. D., Boston, Ms. 
Baldwin Rev G. C, Troy, N. Y. 
Balen Peter, New York city. 
Banvard Rev Joseph, Boston, Ms, 
Banvard Mrs Martha, " 
Barrel! David, Fredonia, N. Y. 
Barker Rev E. P., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Barker Rev E. M., Sampton, N. J. 
Barker Jacob S., New York city. 
Barker Rev Cyrus, Gowahatti, Assam, 
Barker Simeon, Providence, R. I. 
Barker Luke, M, D., New York city. 
Bacon Rev C. L., Mt, Morris, N. Y. 
Bacon Joel S., D. D., Washington, D. C. 
Ballard Rev Joseph, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Battey Wm. E., Fall River, Ms. 
Barrows Rev Allen, Calais, Me. 
Barrows Rev L., Dexter, Me, 
Bailey Rev Silas, Granville, O, 
Bailey Rev Ephraim K., Jaffrey, N. H. 
Bailey Rev Alvin, Jacksonville, III. 
Bailey Benjamin D., Providence, R. I. 
Barney Mm E. E., Dayton, O. 

Badger Charles, Boston, Ms, 
Bainbridge Rev Samuel M., East Avon, N. Y. 
Barron Rev Oliver, Sanbornlon, N. H. 
Backus Rev Jay S., Auburn, N. Y, 
Bartlett Rev C. P., Corinth, Me. 
Baker Rev J., Blockley, Pa. 
Baker Rev N,, Seneca Falls, N. Y, 
Barter John, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Barton D. R., Rochester, N. Y. 
Barnaby Rev James, Boston, Ms. 
Benedict Stephen G., Pawtucket, R. I. 
Benedict Rev David, " 

Benedict Rev George, New York city. 
Benedict Dea Stephen, Pawtucket, R. I. 
Bellows Dr Albert J., Charlestown, Ms, 
Bennett Rev Alfred, Homer, N. Y, 
Bennett Miss Elsina, " 
Bennett Rev Cephas, Tavoy, Burmah. 
Bennett Edward A,, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Beck Rev L G., Trenton, N. J. 
Beecher Rev L. F., Portland, Me. 
Beecher Mrs Mary C, " 
Bevan Rev Isaac, Hamilton, N. Y. 
Bevan J., Cincinnati, O. 
Beebee Ales. M., Utica, N. Y. 
Beebee George W,, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Beny Z. E., Worcester, Ms. 
Berry Jonathan, Cincinnati, O, 
Bentley Rev Wm., Wethersfield, Ct, 
Bernard Rev D., Akron, O. 
Bellamy Rev Rufus K., Billerica, Ms. 
Beam Jacob, Beamsville, Canada. 
Beckwith Jason, New London, Ct. 
Binnev Rev J. G., Maulmain, Burmah, 
Bishop Rev J. F., Belleville, N. Y. 
Bishop Nathan, Providence, R. I. 
Bildeu Rev J., Freehold, N. J. 
Bleecker Garret N,, New York city, 
Blain Mrs Amey Ann, Charlestown, Ms- 
Bliss Rev G. R., New Brunswick, N. J. 
Blood Sylvester, Ballston Spa, N. Y. 
Blodgett Rev John, Centerville, O. 
Bloomer Rev I., Massilon, O. 
Blackinton Sanlord, North Adams, Ms, 
Blackinton Otis, " 

Blake David B., Providence, R. I, 
Bolles James G., Hartford, Ct, 
BoUes Orra A., " 

Booth Mrs Maria, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Booth Rev John, Clinton, Mich. 
Bokee David A,, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Borden Jefferson, Fall River, Ms. 
Borden Cook, " 

Boon Levi D., M. D., Chicago, 111. 
Boardnian George D., Worcester, Ma, 
Boise James R., Providence, R. I. 
Bottum Nathan H., Shaftsbury, Vt. 
Boyd Rev J., Kennebunkville, Me. 
Boulden Mrs Susan, Wilmington, Del. 
Boomer William, Fall River, Ms. 
Boswell Rev James A. 
Bos worth Rev G. W., Boston, Ms, 
Bond Rev E. P., Lawrenceburg, la. 
Boyce James, Providence, R. I. 
Boyington Wm. W., Springfield, Ms. 
Brown Rev Nathan, Sibsagor, Assam, 
Brown Mrs Eliza W. B., " 
Brown Rev Philip P., Fabius, N. Y 


Life Members of the Union. 


Brown Lewis J., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Brown Robert, Norwich, Ct. 

Brown Hugh H., Providence, R. I. 

Brown Josiah, Haverhill, Ms. 

Brown Rev E. T., Mt. Vernon, O. 

Brown Wm., Old Cambridge, Ms. 

Brown Rev John S., Fisherville, N. H. 

Brown James F., Spread Eagle, Pa. 

Brown Samuel, Elbridge, N. Y. 

Brown Dana, Nashua, N. H. 

Brown Rev Wm. L., Westboro', Ms. 

Brown Rev Freeman G., Dorchester, Ms. 

Briggs George N., Pittsfield, Ms. 

Brandt Rev Thomas, Westport, N. Y. 

Bruce John M., New York city. 

Bruce John M., Jr., " 

Bryant Southworth, Chelsea, Ms. 

Biyant Rev D., Cincinnati, O. 

Bradford Rev S. S., Pawtucket, R. I. 

Bradford Rev Z., Providence, R. I. 

Bradford Rev L., Monson, Me. 

Brooks Kendall, Sen., Ro.xbmy, Ms. 

Brooks Rev Kendall, Jr., Eastport, Me. 

Bronson Rev Miles, Nowgong, Assam. 

Brownson Rev I. K., New Woodstock, N. Y. 

Brayton Rev Durlin L., Mergui, Burmah. 

Bright Rev Edward, Jr., Boston, Ms. 

Bright Rev Thomas, Adams Centre, N. Y. 

Briton Rev Thomas, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Bradley Mrs, " 

Bradley Rev J. E., Lewisburg, Pa. 

Breed Rev Joseph B., Pine Plains, N. Y. 

Breed Horace A., Boston, Ms. 

Brierly Rev Benjamin, Salem, Ms. 

Bruce Mrs John M., New York city. 

Brainerd Samuel, Haverhill, Ms. 

Browe Rev Edwin S., N. Brunswick, N. J. 

Braddock John, Hartford, Ct. 

Bradbury Rev C. W., Amesbury, Ms. 

Bromley Rev Heniy, Wethersfield, Ct. 

Brigham Salmon, Madison, N. Y. 

Burrows Rev J. Lansing, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Burrows Rev I. C, West Troy, N. Y. 

Bucknell Wm., Jr., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Bucknell Joseph W., " 

Bump Nathaniel, Providence, R. I. 

Butler James H., " 

Butcher Washington, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Buel Rev Rufus F., Piraeus, Greece. 

Burr Normand, Hartford, Ct. 

Burphy Heman, Palmerston, Me. 

Butts Peleg, Jr., New Bedford, Ms. 

Burdick Penin, New York city. 

Burk James, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Burchard Seneca B., Hamilton, N. Y. 

Butterfield Rev Isaac, Oswego, N. Y. 

Burt James, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Burlingham A. H., Hamilton, N. Y. 

Caldwell Wm. A., New York city. 

Caldwell Mrs Elizabeth, " 

Caldwell Ebenezer, " 

Caldwell Miss Hannah, " 

Caldwell Rev S. L., Bangor, Me. 

Caldwell E. B., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Caldwell Miss Elizabeth, New York city. 

Card Rev Wm. H., 

Caswell Alexis, D. D., Providence, R. L 

Caswell Rev Lewis E., Boston, Ms. 

Carleton Rev George J., West Cambridge, Ms. 

Carleton Mrs Jane, " 

Carleton George R., " 

Carleton Rev Michael, Salem, Ms. 

Caldicott Rev T. F., Roxbuiy, Ms. 

Carpenter Rev Mark, New London, N. H. 

Carpenter Mrs Ruth, Marjiand, N. Y. 

Carpenter Rev Calvin G., Phelps, N. Y. 

Carpenter Cyras, Boston, Ms. 

Case Alonzo, Jordan, N. Y. 

Case Rev Isaac, Readfield, Me. 

Case Rev Zenas, Jr., Ogden, N. Y. 

Cassady P. H., PhUadelphia, Pa. 

CaiT John E., Fall River, Ms. 

Carr Alexander, " 

Carter Joseph, Charlestown, Ms. 

Cannon Rev J., East Poultney, Vt. 

Capron Rev Benjamin W., Port Byron, N. Sf. 

Camp Rev Nelson, Tully, N. Y. 

Child Rev Wm. C, Charlestown, Ms. 

Childs Rev T. P., Henria, O. 

Childs Mrs Mary W., Hartford, Ct. 

Church Pharcellus, D. D., Rochester, N. Y. 

Church Rev Le Roy, Hudson, N. Y. 

Chaffin A. W., Boston, Ms. 

Chissam Rev S., Nobleboro', Me. 

Chase Irah, D. D., Boston, Ms. 

Chase Rev R., Wells, Me. 

Chace George I., Providence, R. L 

Chase Rev Supply, Romeo, Mich. 

Chase Adrian, Haverhill, Ms. 

Chollar Thomas D., Cortlandville, N. Y. 

Challis Rev James M., Marleton, N. J. 

Chappell Russell, Auburn, N. Y. 

Chapin Rev Asahel, Ireland Depot, Ms. 

Cliiimberlain Rev Joseph H., New Berlin, N. Y. 

Chandler Judah, Portland, Me. 

Chandler Rev G. C, Franklin, la. 

Chaplin Rev A. Judson, Wickford, R. I. 

Cheever David, Cincinnati, O. 

Cheney Rev D. B., Columbus, O. 

Chambers Rev J., McConnellsville, O. 

Chapman Rhodes B., Slatersville, R. I. 

Chick Rev John M., Bennington, N. H. 

Clarke Rev Wm., Cazenovia, N. Y. 

Clarke Rev Minor G., Springfield, Ms. 

Clark Rev Charles, Adams, N. Y. 

Clark Rev Henry, Randolph, Ms. 

Clark David, West Cambridge, Ms. 

Clark, John H., Brooklyn, Ms. 

Clark Rev Elbert W., China, N. Y. 

Clark George, Portland, Me. 

Clark Rev C. A., Greenfield, O. 

Clark MrsElizabeth, New York city. 

Clark Miss Emma E., " 

Clift Rev Benjamin H., Littleton, Ms. 

Clapp Benjamin, Fisherville, N. Y. 

Clapp Rev Wm., Albany, N. Y. 

Clapp Miss Jane R., Providence, R. I. 

Cone Spencer H., D. D., New York city. 

Cone Sally Wallace, " 

Cone Spencer Wallace, Somerville, N. J. 

Cone Edward W., New York city. 

Cone Amelia M., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Corey Elijah, Brookline, Ms. 

Corey Rev Sidney A., New York city. 

Cooper William, " 

Cooper M. S., Wilmington, Del. 

Colgate Mrs Jane, New York city. 

Colgate Samuel, " 

Cowan James, " 

Copeland Calvin, Dexter, Me. 

Copeland Mrs Susan D., " 

CoUett Wm. R., Lebanon, O. 

Colver Rev Nathaniel, Boston, Ms. 

Colver Mrs Sarah B., " 

Colver Rev Charles K., Watertovvn, Ms. 

Colver Mrs B. B. H., " 

Courtney Mrs Hannah, Philadelphia, Pa, 

Courtney Rev J. M., Zanesville, O. 

Cook J. W., Cambridge, Ms. 

Cook Rev G., Cape Neddick, Me. 

Cook Mrs Josiah W., Cambridge, Ms. 

Coolidge David, Brookline, Ms. 

Cookson Rev John, Maiden, Ms. 

Cotton J. H., Windsor, Vt. 

Cole Rev Jirah D., Nunda, N. Y. 

Comstock Rev O. C, Coldwater, Mich. 

Corning Ephraim, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Collier Rev Wm. R., Boston, Ms. 

Coflin Ann D., Philadelphia, Pa. 

<^onant John, Brandon, Vt. 

Conant T. J., D. D., Hamilton, N. Y. 

Collins Rev Andrew, Pa. 

Converse Joseph, Worcester, Ms. 

Colby Anthony, New London, N. H. 

Colby Mrs Eliza A., " 

Colby Gardner, Newton, Ms. 

Colby Mrs S., 

Corbett Rev Benj. S., Andover, Ms. 


Life Members of the Union. 


Corlew Elijah J. S , Boston Ms. 

Cooke Rev Samuel, Merideth, N. H. 

Cobb Wm., Hamilton, N. Y. 

Cogswell Robert, Salem, Ms. 

Corwin Rev Ira, Marietta, O. 

Corwin Rev David, Gloversville, N. Y. 

SZan Rev Martin North Sweden, N. Y. 

rnrhin Rev W. D., Henrietta, N. Y. 

Cobum Rev John 'm., Pittsfield, N. H. 

Colburn B. C, Hillsboro', O. 

Colbiirn Mrs Hester A., 

Covel Rev Lemuel, New York city. 

Cote EH. O., (Swiss Missionary,) Canada. 

Counce John H., Warren, Me. 

Cotter Joseph, Damariscotta Me 

Cottrill Mrs Mary, Union Village, N. Y. 

Cummings Daniel, Portland, Me. 

Crane Wm., Baltimore, Md. 

Crane Rev Origen, Weston, Ms. 

Creswell S. J., Philadelphia Pa 

Crozer John P., Marcus Hook, Pa. 

Crumb Caleb, Syracuse, N. V. 

Cross Rev E. B., Tavoy, Burmah. 

Cressey Rev T. R., Indianapolis, la. 

Crawford George, Cincinnati, O. 

Crowell Rev Wm., Boston, Ms. 

Cummings John, Woburn, Ms. 

Cummings George, Cambridge, Ms. 

Cummings Mrs Abigail, „„„^„,.^ ^ « 

Cummings Rev Ebenezer E., Concord, N. H. 

Cummings Daniel, Portland, Me. 

Cummings Daniel, Chelsea, Ms. 

Cutter O. T., Sibsagor, Assam. 

Pnttins Rev S. S., Brooklyn, N. V. 

Cushm'an Rev Eli'sha, Deep River, Ct. 

Cushing Samuel T., Boston, Ms. 

Gushing Mrs Sarah W., 

Curtis Rev Wm. B., Ballston Spa, N. Y. 

CuiTier Edmund, Salem, Ms. 

Dayfoot Rev P. C, Norwalk, O. 

Dale Rev H. S., Newport, O 

Davis Ezra P., New York city. 

Davis Rev Henry, ' 

Davis John C, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Davis Isaac, Worcester, Ms. 

Davis Mrs Isaac, " 

Davis Rev Sylvester, 

Davis Rev C. B., Pans, Me. 

Davis G. F., Cincinnati, O. 

Davis George K., Troy, N. Y. 

Damrell Wm. S., Boston, Ms. 

Day Albert, Hartford, Ct. 

Day Mrs Harriet, " 

Day Albert F., " 

Day Charles G., " 

Day Daniel, Nobleboro', Me. 

Dav Rev Wm., ,,. . 

Day Rev Gershom B., Sherman, Mich. 

Day Horatio E., Hartford, Ct. 

Day Rev Samuel S., Nellore, India. 

Darby Rev Chauncey, Binghampton, N. Y. 

Daniels Dexter, Providence, R. 1. 

Daniels Thomas E., Worcester, Ms. 

Daniels Lucy, ' 

Daniels Rev Harrison, LeRoy, JN. Y. 

*Daniels George P., Providence, R. 1. 

Daniels Wm., New York city. 

Dawson L., M. D., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Davol John, Fall River, Ms. 

Dagg John, Penfield, Ga. 

Dagg J. L., D. D., " 

Dawley J. E., Jr., Fall River, Ms 

Danforth Rev George F., Medford, Ms. 

Danforth Rev A. H., Gowahati, Assam. 

Davenport Rev Edward, Coleiain, Ms. 

Devan Rev Thomas T., France. 

*Devan Mrs. Lydia, 

Dean Peter W., Grafton, Vt. 

Dean Benj. W., '' 

Dean Rev Ezra, Auburn, N. Y. 

Dean Rev Wm., Hongkong, China. 

Dewees Samuel, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dexter John, Providence, R. I. 

Dexter Rev H. V., Calais, Me. 

Dennis Rev Wm. L., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Denison Rev Nathan, Hardwick, Vt. 

Denison Rev A. E., Wallingford, Ct. 

Dennison Gorham, Stillwater, N. Y . 

Dearborn Wra., Brookline, Ms. 

Deming Amos, Savoy, Ms. 

Delany Rev James, East Troy, Wis. 

Dillaway Rev Samuel C, Granville, N. Y. 

Dixon Rev J. A., TeiTe Haute, la. 

Dimack Joseph W., Hartford, Ct. 

Dickinson Rev Edward, Elmira, N. Y. 

Dowley John, New York city. 

Doyle Hugh, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dodge Rev H. B., Plattsburg, N. Y 

Dodge Hezekiah, Portland, Me. 

Dodge Ebenezer, Salem, Ms. 

Dodge Rev Ebenezer, Jr., New Hampton, N. H. 

Dodge Rev Orien, Troy, N. Y. 

Dowling Rev Thomas, Willimantic, Ct. 

Dowling John, D. D., New York city. 

Douglas Rev Wm., Providence, R. 1. 

Drew Clement, Boston, Ms. 

Drake Rev S. J., Plainfield, N. J. 

Drake Levi F., Portland, Me. 

Drummond James Purser, New York city 

Drury Rev A., Covington, Ky. 

Drinkwater Rev Arthur, Fayette, Me. 

Durbrow Wm., New York city. 

Duncan James H., Haverhill, Ms. 

Duncan Rev John, Lowell, Ms. 

Durand Henry M., Maulmain, Burmah. 

Dunn Drake, Plainfield, N. J. 

Dunn Rev L. A., Fairfax, Vt. 

Durant Clark, Albany, N. Y. 

Durnell James, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Dunlevy A. H., Lebanon, O. 

Dugan Wm. T., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Dunham Daniel, Pawtucket, R. I. 

Durfee Benjamin, New Bedford, Ms. 

Dye Rev Walter G., Fabius, N. Y. 

Eaton George W., D. D., Hamilton, N. Y. 

Eaton Rev Joseph W., Danvers, Ms. 

Eaton Rev J. Sewall, Portland, Me. 

Eaton Rev Edwin, Bellevue, O. 

Earp Mrs R., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Eastman Henry, ZanesvUle, O. 

Eastwood Rev M., Mt. HoUey, N. J. 

Eddy Richard E., Boston, Ms. 

Eddy Mrs EmUy A., " 

Eddy John, Fall River, Ms. 

Eddy Rev Daniel C, Lowell, Ms. 

Eddy Rev Hermon J., Jordan, N. Y. 

Edraands Thomas, Newton, Ms. 

Edwards Robert, New York city. 

Edwards Rev B. A., Grafton, Ms. 

Edwards Hervey, Fayetteville, N. Y. 

Edmond Francis, Portland, Me. 

Ellsworth Nathaniel, " 

Elliott Lemuel H., Providence, R. I. 

Ely Rev Richard M., Barnstable, Ms. 

Erwin Rev T. M., Morristown, O. 

Estep Rev James, 

Estee Rev A., York, N. Y. 

Everts Rev W. W., New York city. ; 

Evans Rev Charles, Saline, Mieh. 

Evans Joseph T., New York city. 

Eveleth Samuel, Boston, Ms. 

Ewing John, Cincinnati, O. 

Ewart T. W., Marietta, O. 

Facer Rev Thomas H., Gros Lake, Mich. 

Fairbanks Benjamin, Jersey City, N. J. 

Fellows James, New York city. 

Fenner Rest, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ferrier John M., New York city. 

Felch Rev Alvin, Bowdoinham, Me. 

Feller Madam Henrietta, (Swiss Miss.,) Canada. 

Fisher George, Cazenovia, N. Y. 

Fisher Rev Abiel, South Milford, Ms. 

Fitts Rev Hervey, Ashland, Ms. 

Finley Rev John, Lebanon, O. 

Field Rev Samuel W., Hallowell, Me. 

Fish Rev H. C, Somerville, N. J. 

Flinn Jacob, Dorchester, Ms. 

Fletcher Richard, Boston, Ms. 


Life Members of the Union. 


Fletcher Rev Horace, Townsend, Vt. 

Flannigan John, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Flannigan James, " 

Flanders Rev Charles W., Beverly, Ms. 

Fly Rufus, Damariscotta, Me. 

Fox Albert R., Sand Lake, N. Y. 

Fox Rev Charles A., Spencer, N. Y. 

Fox Rev Norman, Ballston Spa, N. Y. 

Follet Silas, Thetford, Vt. 

Follett Miss Miranda, Staten Island, N. J. 

Ford John M., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ford Isaac, " 

Fosdick James, Charlestown, Ms. 

Forbes C, Cincinnati, O. 

Foster Rev J. C, Brattleboro', Vt. 

Foster Rev Nahum, Cornish, N. H. 

Fowler Gamaliel, Suffield, Ct. 

Foot Rev David, Lagiange, N. Y. 

Forbush Rev , Boston, Ms. 

Frye Robie, Montville, Me. 

Frey Rev Eli, Rainsboro', O. 

French Enoch, Fall River, Ms. 

French Stephen L., " 

French Rev David P., Goffstown, N. H. 

French Job B., Fall River, Ms. 

French Rev Enos, " 

Frazyer Edward, New York city. 

Freeman Rev Zenas, Hamilton, N. Y. 

Freeman Rev Timothy G., Southboro', Ms. 

Freeman Rev Edward, Hope, Me. 

Fuller C. M., Jr., Pike, N. Y. 

Fuller Rev Robert, Cambridge, Ms. 

Fulton Rev John I., Stoney Creek, Mich. 

Garrett Wm. E., PhUadelphia, Pa. 

Ganett George H., " 

Gammell Wm., Providence, R. I. 

Gammell Asa Messer, Wanen, R. I. 

Gardiner Wm., M. D., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gardiner Richard, " 

Gault George, Brooklvn, N. Y. 

Gault John A., Concord, N. H. 

Gallup Ezra S., Homer, N. Y. 

Gallagher J. M., Springfield, Ms. 

Gage Rev David, New Boston, N. H. 

Gates Rev Wm., Union, N. Y. 

George Moses D., Haverhill, Ms. 

Gilbert Timothy, Boston, Ms. 

Gilbert Joshua, New York city. 

Gillpatrick Rev James, Topsham, Me. 

Gillpatrick Mrs Jane M., " 

Gillette Rev A. D., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Gillette Mrs, " 

Giles Alfred E., Somerville, Ms. 

Gilman George H., New York city. 

Glover Rev Samuel, Cambridge, Ms. 

Gould Frederick, Boston, Ms. 

Gould Rev Asa H., Baring, Me. 

Gould Charles D., Boston, Ms. 

Goddard Rev Josiah, Bangkok, Siam. 

Goo Rev Peter, Vernon, N. Y. 

Gorman Samuel, , O. 

Going Rev Ezra, Granville, O. 

Goadby Rev John, Burnt Hills, N. Y. 

Goodfellow James, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Godding Rev Rufus, Burke, Vt. 

Govven John H., Saco, Me. 

Gray Rev E. H., Shelburne Falls, Ms. 

Greenough Byron, Portland, Me. 

Gregory Rev Seth, New Lisbon, N. Y. 

Granger Rev James N., Providence, R. I. 

Granger Mrs Anna B., " 

Granger James N., Jr., " 

Granger Rev A. H., ^A'arren, Me. 

Granger Reuben, Sutiield, Ct. 

Grafton Rev Benjamin C, Cambridgeport, Ms 

Grafton Daniel G., Boston, Ms. 

Graves Rev Joseph M., Methuen, Ms. 

Griggs Samuel, Rutland, Vt. 

Griggs David R., Brookline, Ms. 

Griggs John W., Mansfield, O. 

Green Thomas L., Albany, N. Y. 

Green Rev James W., " 

Green Rev J. H., Salisbury, N. Y. 

Green Arnold, Providence, R. I. 

Green Mrs Cornelia E., Providence, R. I. 

Green Miss Frances Mary, " 

Green C. H., Windham, Vt. 

Green Rev J. R., Hanover, N. H. 

Grant Rev Wm. C, Litchfield, Me. 

Grant Rev Stillman B., North Granville, N. Y. 

Greenwood Joseph C, Albany, N. Y. 

Grenell Rev Zelotes, Paterson, N. J. 

Grubb William, Boston, Ms. 

Griswold Wareham, Hartford, Ct. 

Griswold Rev Salem T., Perrinton, N. Y. 

Grow Rev James, Thompson, Ct. 

Greely Jonathan, New London, N. H. 

Gross Rev Alba, Napierville, N. Y. 

Griffin P., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hascall Rev Daniel, Hamilton, N. Y. 

Haskell Rev Abel, Canandaigua, N. Y. 

Harrington Rev Daniel, Palmyra, N. Y. 

Hartshorn Rev Chancellor, Madison, N. Y. 

Hartshorn Rev Joseph C, Georgetown, Ms. 

Haynes Rev D. C, Portland, Me. 

Haynes Aaron, Littleton, Ms. 

Haynes Rev Arus, Jersey City, N. J. 

Harrison Rev John C, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Harrison Samuel A., " 

Hackett Horatio B., D. D., Newton, Ms. 

Hatt Rev George, New York city. 

Hatt Rev Josiah, Hoboken, N. J. 

Hatt Mrs Mary Thomas, New York city. 

Hammond Andrew W., Haverhill, Ms. 

Hammond William, Dorchester, Ms. 

Hale James, Haverhill, Ms. 

HaiTis Rev Edward L., Rushford, N. Y. 

Harris Ira, Albany, N. Y. 

Harris Rev John, Battle Creek, Mich. 

Hanis T., Cincinnati, O. 

Hanis Rev George W., Adrian, Mich. 

Haswell Rev J. M., Amherst, Burmah. 

Harvey Hezekiah, New York city. 

Harvey Rev Adiel, Plymouth, Ms. 

Hammett Rev Joseph, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hall Abiatha, Fall River, Ms. 

Hall Rev Silas, Raynham, Ms. 

Hall Enoch, Worcester, Ms. 

Hall Rev Jeremiah, Norwalk, O. 

Haviland John, New York city. 

Hassall John P., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hansen Wm. F., « 

Hansen Wm. S., " 

Hansel Standish F., " 

Hagar William, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Hague Rev Wm., Boston, Ms. 

Hague James, Newark, N. J. 

Hayden Rev Lucius, Saxton River, Vt. 

Hayden Charles H., Eastport, Me. 

Halsted Benjamin, New York city. 

Ham William, Providence, R. I. 

Hawes Rev Henry, Richmond, Me. 

Hastings Joseph, Troy, N. Y. 

Hatch Rev Salmon, Canaan, N. Y. 

Harmon Rawson, Jr., Mumford, N. Y. 

Hart Henry B., Portland, Me. 

Haven Mrs Sarah L., Boston, Ms. 

Hallman Maiy, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hail George, Providence, R. I. 

Hevvett Rev C. A., Wilkesbarre, Pa. 

Heath Rev Wm., South Reading, Ma. 

Hewins Luther G., New Bedford, Ms. 

Herrick Rev J. S., WaiTen, N. H. 

Heoredh George, Portsmouth, O. 

Hill Rev Benj. M., New York city. 

Hill Samuel, Boston, Ms. 

Hill Mary B., « 

Hill Samuel, Jr., " 

Hill S. P., Charlestown, Ms. 

Hill Mrs Rebecca, Essex, Ct. 

Hill Wm. B., South Boston, Ms. 

Hill Isaac, Canton, N. Y. 

Hill Francis W., Boston, Ms. 

Hill Rev Daniel T., Plainfield, N. J. 

Hill Rev L. D., Woonsocket, R. I. 

Hires Rev W. D., Bordentown, N. J. 

Hinman D. B., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hillman WiUiam, New York city. 


Life Members of the Union. 


Hillman Mrs Catharine, New York city. 

Higgins Rev George, Pliiladelphia, Pa. 

Hillman Samuel T., New York city. 

Hodge Rev Edward, Fairfield, Mich. 

Hodge Rev H. D., Dunbarton, N. H. 

Hodge Rev M. G., Colchester, Vt. 

Hodge Rev J. L., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Holland Wm. A., Boston, Ms. 

Howe Joseph J., " 

Howe Rev Wm., " 

Howe Phineas, Grafton, Ms. 

Hovey Wm. B., Cambridge, Ms. 

Hopper Samuel N., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hoyt James M., Cleaveland, O. 

Hodges Rev 0. W., East Bennington, Vt. 

Hodges Rev Joseph, Jr., East Brookfield, Ms. 

Hotchkiss Rev V. R., Fall River, Ms, 

Hotchkiss Mrs V. B., " 

Hotchkiss Rev L., Medina, Mich. 

Holden Thomas R., Providence, R. I, 

Howard Rev W. G., Essex, Ct. 

Howard Rev Leland, Hartford, N. Y. 

Holme John S., Hamilton, N. Y. 

Houghton Rev George W., Pleasant Valley, N. 

Howell David, Southport, N. Y. 

Hosmer Ashbel A., Mumford, N. Y. 

Hooper Rev Noah, Jr., Somersworth, N. H. 

Hosford Rev Isaac D., Laporte, la. 

Holt Moses K., Haverhill, Ms. 

Holbrook Samuel F., Boston, Ms. 

Hope Rev James M., Keokuck, Iowa. 

Hunt Thomas, New York city. 

Hunt Wilson G., " 

Humphrey Friend, Albany, N. Y. 

Humphrey Mrs F., " 

Hurlburt Thomas Purser, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Hurlburt Elisha Dennison, " 

Hurlburt Rev E., Elizabethtown, N. Y. 

Hutchinson Rev Elijah, Windsor, Vt. 

Huntley Rev Leland J., Holland Patent, N. Y. 

Hyde Amos, Lowell, Ms. 

Ide Rev George B., Philadelphia, Pa. 

lUsley Rev Silas, Portsmouth, N. H. 

IngalU Rev Lovell, Akyab, Arracan. 

Inglis Rev James, London, C. W. 

Irish Peter D., New London, Ct. 

Ives Rev Dwight, Suffield, Ct. 

Ives Mrs Julia A., " 

Jackson Rev Henry, Providence, R. I. 

Jameson Humphrey, Boston, Ms. 

Jameson Rev T. C, Providence, R. I. 

Jameson Mrs T. C, " 

Jameson Wm. H., Boston, Ms. 

James Israel E., Philadelphia, Pa. 

James J. Sexton, M. D., Shanghai, China. 

James Charles S., Philadelphia, Pa. 

James George, Zanesville, O. 

Jacobs Rev Wm. B., Claremont, N. H. 

Jacobs Rev Edwin T., East Green, N. Y. 

Jayne David, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Jayne Mrs Mary W., " 

Jastram George B., Providence, R. I. 

Jenkins Francis, Gowahatti, Assam. 

Jewell Wilson, M. D., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Jewett Rev Lyman, Webster, Ms. 

Jennings Rev John, Worcester, Ms. 

Jones Rev John T., Bangkok, Siam, 

Jones Wm. G., Wilmington, Del. 

Jones Washington, " 

Jones Rev Henry V., Newark, N. J. 

Jones Rev Evan, Cherokee, C. N. 

Jones Rev H. G., Leverington, Pa. 

Jones Rev Josiah F., Williamsburg, N. Y. 

Jones Rev Aaron B., Solon, N. Y. 

Jones John B., Roxbury, Ms. 

Jones David, Newark, N. J. 

Jones Rev C, Saline, Mich. 

Jones Daniel D., New York city. 

Jones Rev Stephen, Hillsdale, N. Y. 

Jones Rev Zebulon, Hampton Falls, N. H. 

Jones Rev T. Z. R., Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Jones Rev John, Willistown, Pa. 

Johnstone Andrew, Newark, N. J. 

Johnstone Robert, " 

Johnson Adam, Reading, Pa. 
Johnson Noble S., Cincinnati, O. 
Johnson Rev Wm., Waterboro', Me. 
Johnson Ephraim, Portland, Me. 
Joy Rev A., Cornish, Me. 
Jolls John F., Providence, R. I. 
Judd Rev Orren B., New York city. 
Judson Adoniram, D. D., Maulmain, Burmah. 
Kalloch Rev Amariah, Augusta, Me. 
Keen Wm. W., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Keen Mrs Susan B., " 
Kendrick Nathaniel, D. D., Hamilton, N. Y. 
Kendrick Rev Asahel C, " 

Kendrick Rev Ariel, Cavendish, Vt. 
Kelly Samuel R., New York city. 
Kelly William, " 

Kelly Robert, " 

Kelly Rev J. M., Hanging Rock, O. 
Kelly J. V. D., Somerville, N. J. 
Keely Rev George, Haverhill, Ms. 
Keely John, " 

Keely Rev Josiah, Wenham, Ms. 
Keely Rev Thomas E., Kingston, Ms. 
Y. Ketchum Rev Frederick, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Ketchum Rev Jonathan, Wayne Hotel, N, Y. 
Kennard Rev J. H., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Kennard Mrs B., " 

Kendall Charles S., Boston, Ms. 
Kendall Rev Henry, China, Me. 
Kempton Rev George, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Kempton Mrs Sarah, " 

Keyes Rev C. B., " 

Kelley Mrs Mary M., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Kent Remember, Pawtucket, R. I. 
Kincaid Rev Eugenio, Lewisburg, Pa. 
Kincaid Mrs E., " 

Kingsbury Jesse, Boston, Ms. 
Kingsbury Rev S. A., Nobleboro', Me. 
Kingsbuiy Rev Samuel, Brookline, Vt. 
Kimball Rev Willard, Brandon, Vt. 
Kimball Rufus, Haverhill, Ms. 
Kimball Eliphalet, Lyme, N. H. 
Kidder Rev Franklin, Busti, N. Y. 
Kingsley Rev A. C, Parma Centre, N, Y. 
Knowles Levi, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Knowles Miss Susan E., Providence, R. I. 
Knowles Miss Sarah A., " 

Kneeland Rev A. S., Canandaigua, N. Y. 
Knapp Rev B. S., Jefferson, O. 
Ko A-Bak, Hong Kong, China. 
Ko Thah-a, Rangoon, Burmah. 
Ky-ing, Canton, China. 
Ladd Rev James S., Sag Harbor, N. Y. 
Langley Joshua H., Providence, R. I. 
Lathrop Rev Edward, New York city. 
Land Rev Charles D., Lodi, N. Y. 
Larcombi Rev Thomas, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Lamb Rev A., Whitingham, Vt. 
Lane Rev Benj. I., Old Cambridge, Ms. 
Lane W. H., Whitesboro', N. Y. 
Lawrence Rev Manasseh, Sumner, Me. 
Lawton Rev J. W., Leeds, Me. 
Lawton George, Waltham, Ms. 
Lamson Nathaniel, Shelburne Falls, Ms. 
Lamson Ebenezer G., " 

Lamson Rev Wm., Gloucester, Ms. 
Lewis Rev Daniel D., Piscataway, N. Y. 
Lewis Rev Richard, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Lewis Elijah, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Lewis Alex. N., " 

Lewis Mrs Sarah A., " 
Levy Rev Edgar M., West Philadelphia, Pa. 
Leonard Rev L. G., New London, Ct. 
Leonard Rev Lewis, Cazenovia, N. Y. 
Leach Rev Beriah N., Greenport, N. Y. 
Levering Andrew, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Lee George, East 151oonifield, N. Y. 
Lee Franklin, Philadelphia, ra. 
Lee R. W., Cincinnati, O. 
Leverett Rev Wm., East Cambridge, Ma. 
Leland Rev Ira, Lexington, Ms. 
Leighton Rev Samuel S., Sanbornton, N. H. 
Lincoln Heman, Boston, Ms. 
Lincoln Rev T. O., Manchester, N. H. 


Life Members of the Union. 


♦Lincoln Mrs Malvina W., Manchester, N. H. 

Lincoln Rev Heman, New Britain, Pa. 

Lincoln Henry E., Boston, Ms. 

Lincoln Joshua, " 

Lindsay William, Fall River, Ms. 

Little George W., Charlestown, Ms. 

Litchfield Elisha, Cazenovia, N. Y. 

Litchfield Rev D. W., Benton, N. Y. 

Loring James, Boston, Ms 

Loring Rev Horatio N., Utica, N. Y. 

Loring Joshua, Chelsea, Ms. 

Loxley Rev B. R., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Lovell L. O., Albany, N. Y. 

Lovell Rev N. G., North Attleboro', Ms. 

Lovell Laura H., Fall River, Ms. 

Love Rev Horace T., North Adams, Ms. 

Loomis Rev J. R., Waterville, Me. 

Locke Rev W. E., Scotch Plains, N. Y. 

Ludlow R. M., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ludlow John R., New York city. 

Lyman Julia E., Hartford, Ct. 

Lynn Leonora, St. Louis, Mo. 

Lyon David, New York city. 

Lyon Rev P., Virgil, N. Y. 

Lyle Robert, New Bmnswick, N. J. 

Martin R. W., New York city. 

Martin Mrs Margaret, Elbridge, N. Y. 

Martin Sanford L., Lamoille, 111. 

Martin Rev Edward W., Mud Creek, N. Y. 

Martin Wm. R., New York city. 

Martin Philip W., Providence, R. I. 

Macomber Ichabod, Jamaica Plain, Ms. 

Mason J. M. E., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mason Rev Francis, Maulmain, Burmah. 

Mason Rev Alanson P., Williamsburgh, N. Y. 

Mason Rev J. O., Union Village, N. Y. 

Mason David G., Swanzey, N. H. 

Mason Ephraim B., Boston, Ms. 

Macdonald Alex., New York city. 

Mac Illvaine J. K., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Macgowan D. J., M. D., Ningpo, China. 

Maginnis John S., D. D., Hamilton, N. Y. 

Mallory Rev Almond C, Wayne, N. Y. 

Maclay Archibald, D. D., New York city. 

Marshall Rev Enos, Sennett, N. Y. 

Malcom Rev Thomas S., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Magoon Rev E. L., Cincinnati, O. 

Marchant Isaac W., Providence, R. I. 

Madara Daniel P., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Mather Rev A. P., Black Rock, N. Y. 

*McCoy Rev Isaac, Louisville, Ky. 

McLeod George, Philadelphia, Pa. 

LcLallen James, Trumansburg, N. Y. 

McCarthy Rev Wm., Farmersville, N. Y. 

McGear Rev D, L., Central Falls, R. I. 

McCormick Richard C, New York city. 

Mcintosh Mrs Mary, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Metcalf Rev Whitman, Brockpoft, N. Y. 

Metcalf George P., Brattleboro', Vt. 

Messenger Foster C, Wilmington, Del. 

Merriam Rev Asaph, Bolton, Sis. 

Merriam Rev F., East Winthrop, Me. 

Merriam Rev Isaac, Tremont, 111. 

Mears Elijah, Boston, Ms. 

Messer Rev Amos P., Enfield, Me. 

Mitchell Mrs Catharine, New York city. 

Millbank Jeremiah, " 

Millbank Mrs Elizabeth L., " 

Miles Rev George I., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Miles Rev S. W., Meriden, N. H. 

Miller Charles T., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Miller Pardon, Providence, R. I. 

Miller Rev Charles, Bloomfield, Me. 

Mingle P. B., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Millard George, North Adams, Ms. 

Mills Peter, Zanesville, O. 

Mills Rev Robert C, Salem, Ms. 

Miner Rev Asa B., Italy Hill, N, Y. 

Miner Rev H., Gorhani, N. Y. 

Miner Rev Bradley, Pittsfield, Ms. 

Miner Rev A., . 

Miner Rev S. G., Lafavette, la. 

MiiTick Rev Stephen H., Charlotteville, Va. 

Morton Rev Charles, Newark, N. J. 


Moore James, Sen., Milton, Pa. 
Moore Rev Lyman H., Ypsilanti, Mich. 
Moore Rev J. L., Springfield, O. 
Montague Rev O., Troopsville, N. Y. 
Morgan T. F., Cincinnati, O. 
Mosely Arunah, Penfield, N. Y. 
Montgomery Wm., Danbury, Ct. 
Jlorey Rev Reuben, Homer, N. Y. 
iMunn Stephen B., New York city. 
Munn Mrs Sarah P., " 

Munn Wm. H., 
Munn Mrs Mary Warren, " 
Munroe John, Elbridge, N. Y. 
iMuiiroe Mrs Hannah, " 
Sluzzey Rev Lawson, Norwich, Ct. 
Mulford John, PhUadelphia, Pa. 
Mulford Rev C. W., Flemington, N. J. 
♦ Murray John, Charlestown, Ms. 
Murphy John K., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Murdock Rev John N., Albion, N. Y. 
Myers Mrs T. A., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Naphev Abraham, " 

Nash Rev J. A., Watertown, N. Y. 
Neale Rev Rollin H., Boston, Ms. 
Nelson Rev E., Middleboro', Ms. 
Nelson Nathaniel, New Bedford, Ms. 
Newell Asa, Providence, R. I. 
Newell Isaac D., Upper Alton, 111. 
Newton Wm., Worcester, Ms. 
Newton Alice, New York city. 
Nickerson Rev James, Cazenovia, N. Y. 
Nickerson Thomas, Boston, Ms. 
Nice Rev George P., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Nice Rev W. J., Holndell, N. J. 
Nichols Rev C. R., Keeseville, N. Y. 
Nichols Charles H., Boston, Ms. 
Nichols Mrs W. M., " 
Nutter Rev David, Sedgwick, Me. 
Olmstead Rev J. W., Chelsea, Ms. 
Olcott Rev James B., Parma, N. Y. 
Oncken Rev J. G., Hamburg, Germany. 
Osgood Rev S. M., Wyoming, N. Y. 
Osborn Rev L., Franklin, O. 
Osborn Rev Jedediah W., Scipio, N. Y. 
Oviatt Nathaniel, Richfield, O. 
Owen Rev E. D., Indianapolis, la. 
Parkhurst Rev J. \W., West Dedham, Ms. 
Parker Rev J. W., Cambridge, Ms. 
Parker Mrs M. A., " 

Parker Rev Henry, Burlington, Vt. 
Parker Caleb, Roxbury, Ms. 
Parker Caleb, Jr., " 
Parker Rev Addison, Palmer, Ms 
Parker Rev Aaron, Coventry, N. Y. 
Parker Rev S. S., Burlington, N. J. 
Patch Rev George W., Sharon, Ms. 
Patch Abijah, Boston, Ms. 
Park Rev F. S., Clifton Park, N. Y. 
Patten Rev Alfred S., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Paulding Theophilus, " 

Page Rev Stephen B., Wooster, O. 
Page Abel, Haverhill, Ms. 
*Pattison Rev Wm., New Britain, Ct. 
Pattison, R. E., D. D., Covington, Ky. 
Pattison Miss Sarah Lavinia, " 
Parsons Rev S. S., Parma, N. Y. 
Parsons Silas, Swanzey, N. H. 
Payne Mrs Betsey, Hamilton, N. Y. 
Parmlee Rev W. H.. Shelburne Falls, Ms. 
Parmley Rev D. S., Pemberton, N. J. 
Pasco Rev Cephas, Quincy, Ms. 
Parlen Horace, Winthrop, Me. 
Parrish Rev Wm. F., Knowlesville, N. Y. 
Peabody Francis BoUes, Amherst, N. H. 

Pettengill Lemuel C, , N. Y. 

Peck Rev Solomon, Bopton, Ms. 
Peck Mrs Elizabeth R. H., " 
Peck George B., Providence, R. L 
Peck Rev John M., Rock Spring, III. 
Peck Rev John, New Woodstock, N. Y. 
*Peck Rev Philetus B., Owego, N. Y. 
Peck Wm. H., Providence, R. I. 
Peck David A., Clifton Park, N. Y. 
Perkins Rev A., Danbury, Ct. 


Life Members of the Union. 


Perkins Samuel S., Boston, Ms. 

Perkins Jabez, Topsham, Me. 

Perkins Rev N. M., Westfield, Ms. 

Pease R. M., Albany, N. Y. 

Pegg Roger, New York city. 

Peak John H., Boston, Ms. 

Penney Rev VVm., Uniontown, Pa. 

Person Rev Ira, Concord, N. H. 

Phelps Rev S. D., New Haven, Ct. 

Phillips Rev. D W., Medfleld, Ms. 

Phippen Rev Geo., Tyringham, Ms. 

Pierce Mrs Emily A., New York city. 

Pierce Alvah, Hamilton, N. Y. 

PiUsbury Rev P., Me. 

Pike Jonathan, Providence, R. I. 

Pike Miss Ann Eliza W., Providence, R. I. 

Pike Albert B. H., " 

Pier Sylvester, New York city. 

Pixley Rev. Joseph B., Hardwick, N. Y. 

Pinney Rev. Alfred, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Piatt Nathan C, New York city. 

Piatt Mrs Jane D., " 

Plummer John L., Roxbury, Ms. 

Powers Rev Ingrahara, West Mendeth, N. Y. 

Post Rev. Reuben, Essex, Ct. 

Porter Rev. Lemuel, Lowell, Ms. 

Porter Benjamin, Danvers, Ms. 

Porter Rev Charles G., Bangor, Me. 
Powell Thomas, Hennipen, HI. 
Powell William, Cincinnati, O. 

Poineer J. R., " 

Pool Samuel, Roxbury, Ms. 

Poland Rev James A., Concord, N. H. 

Pratt Rev D. D., Nashua, N. H. 

Pratt Mrs D. D., " 

Pratt C. M., New England Village, Ms. 

Purser Thomas, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Purser Mrs Mary, " 

Putnam Rev Daniel, Eaton, N. Y. 

Putnam Rev Benjamin, Billerica, Ms. 

Purington Rev Thomas, McLean, N. Y. 

Purington Rev Daniel B., South Livonia, N. Y. 

Purkis Miss Mary A., Providence, R. I. 

Pyper Rev James, Pontiac, Mich. 

Raymond Mrs Mary Ann, Hartford, Ct. 

Raymond Rev Lewis, Milwaukie, Wis. 

Raymond Rev J. H., Hamilton, N. Y. 

Raymond Rev R. R., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Randall Rev S. B., Portersville, Ct. 

Randall Charles, Norwich, N. Y. 

Ramsey Perley A., Boston, Ms. 

Randolph David Fitts, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Randolph Ambrose F., " 

Randolph J. D. F., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Rand Rev Thomas, West Springfield, Ms. 

Rayfield W. W., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Ranney Stephen E., Hartford, Vt. 

Ranstead Rev L., Fultonville, N. Y. 

Reed Jacob, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Reed Rufus, Albion, N. Y. 

Reed Rev D. D., Great Bend, N. Y. 

Reed Rev Caleb, Westmoreland, N. Y. 

Reed Rev E. D., Truxton, N. Y. 

Read James H., Providence, R. L 

Read George, Deep River, Ct. 

Read George W., Fall River, Ms. 

Reid Rev Wm., Bridgeport, Ct. 

Reynolds Mrs Susan D., Boston, Ms. 

Remington Rev Stephen, New York city. 

Rees Rev Wm., Yates, N. Y. 

Reylea Solomon S., Hamilton, N. Y. 

Rhees Rev Morgan J., Wilmington, Del. 

Rhees Mrs Mary Ann, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Rice Mrs Catharine, Hartford, Ct. 

Richardson Alfred, Portland, Me. 
Richardson James M., West Cambridge, Ms. 
Richardson Rev Phineas, Hollis, N. H. 
Richardson Rev I. G., Danvers, Ms. 
Richardson Rev Daniel F., Monson Vil., N. H, 
Richardson John F., Hamilton, N. Y. 
Richardson Thomas, Boston, Ms. 
Richards Rev John M., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Richards Rev Wm. C, New England Vil., Ms, 
Richards Henry, Fall River, Mb. 

Richards Rev Humphrey, Dorchester, Ms. 
Richards Edwin S., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Rittenhouse Miss S. B., " 
Ripley Mrs Abigail, Boston, Ms. 
Ripley H. J., D. D., Newton, Ms. 

Ripley Rev Thomas B., , Tenn. 

Ripley Peter, Cohasset, Ms. 
Ring Mrs Hannah, New York city. 
Richmond Rev J. L., Perinton, N. Y. 
RocJ?wood Rev J. M., Rutland, Vt. 
Rowan P., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Rogers Rev John, Perth Araboy, N. J. 
Rogers Mrs Elizabeth, Providence, R. I. 
Rogers John C, Deep River, Ct. 
Robbins Charles, Providence, R. L 
Robbins Rev Gurdon, Hartford, Ct. 
Robbins Rev Gilbert, Keene, N. H. 
Robinson Rev Ezekiel G., Covington, Ky. 
Robinson George W., Boston, Ms. 
Robinson Gurdon, Lebanon, Ct. 
Robinson Asa A., " 

Robinson T. B., Levant, Me. 
Robinson Rev Samuel, St. Johns, N. B. 
Robinson Harvey, Chickopee Falls, Ms, 
Robinson David, Portland, -Me. 
Robertson Rev Henry, Franklin, N. Y. 
Robarts W. S., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Roberts Rev Thomas, Holmesburg, Pa. 
Royce Rev E., Birmingham, O. 
Roy Rev W. A., Charlottesville, Va. 
Russell Hubbard, Albany, N. Y. 
Runyon Peter P., New Brunswick, N. J. 
Runyon Richard E., " 

Sarles John Wesley, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Sarles Mrs J. W., 
Sanderson Daniel, Brookline, Ms. 
Sailor John, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Sands Ezra, " 

Sawyer Rev Reuben, Chester, Vt. 

Sawyer Enoch, Amesbuiy, Ms. 

Sawyer Rev Conant, Jay, N. Y. 

Sawyer Rev E., Smithville, N. Y. 

Sabin Rev Alvah, Georgia, Vt. 

Sage Oren, Rochester, N. Y. 

Sage Rev O. N., Covington, Ky. 

Sage Mrs E. B., " 

Sage Wm. N., Rochester, N. Y. 

Samson Rev George VV., Washington, D. C. 

Sackett Rev J. B., Kingsville, O. 

S.argent Rev Aaron, Withamsville, O. 

Sargent Rev S. G., Frankfort, Me. 

Sargent Rev James, Greenfield, O. 

Savage Rev Edward, Fitchburg, Ms. 

Savage Mrs Sarah F., " 

Scribner David, Topsham, Me. 

Sears Barnas, D. D., Newton, Ms. 

Sears Rev Edward G., North Wrentham, Ms. 

Seccomb Edward R., Brookline, Ms. 

Sedgwick Rev Wm., Adamsville, O. 

Seely Rev John T., New York city. 

Seeley Jesse N., Keokuk, Iowa. 

Seddinger Matthias, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Seaver Joseph, Salem, Ms. 

Shuck Rev J. Lewis, Shanghai, China. 

Sheldon D. N., D. D., Waterville, Me. 

Sheldon Rev Clesson P., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Sheldon Gaylor, Albany, N. Y. 

Sheldon Smith, " 

Sheldon A., Adams, N. Y. 

Sheldon Asa, Utica, N. Y. 

Shelden Chauncy, Suffield, Ct. 

ShepaiJson Hev D., Cincinnati, O. 

Shepardsor Irs H. B., " 

Sheppard V., " 

Sheparf" ael, Salem, Ms. 

Shadra> Wm., Lewisburg, Pa. 

Shadracn ivlrs Mary, " 

Sheardown Rev. Thomas S., , N. Y. 

Shaw Thomas, Boston, Ms. 

Shaw Alpheus, Portland, Me. 

Shaw Rev B. F., China, Me. 

Shaw Miss Harriet N., Providence, R. I. 

Shardlow Samuel, New York city. 

Shailer Rev. Wm. H., Brookline, Ms. 

Shailer Rev. Nathan E., Deep River, Ct. 


Life Members of the Union. 


Shailer Rev Julius, Roxbury, Ms. 

Shailer Rev Simon, Haddam, Ct. 

Shailer Rev Davis T., Dorchester, Ms. 

Sharp Daniel, D. D., Boston, Ms. 

Sharp Mrs Ann, " 

Shipley Simon G., " 

Sherwood Mrs Lydia, Bridgeport, Ct. 

Shotwell Samuel R., West Greenfield, N. Y. 

Shermer Henry B., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Simmons Rev J. P., Cortlandville, N. Y. 

Simpson Daniel P., Boston, Ms. 

Sibley Rev Clark, Harvard, Ms. 

Silliman Ezra, Bridgeport, Ct. 

Sillimam Rev H., Clarkson, N. Y. 

Skelding Arthur E., New York city. 

Skinner Rev P. C, Windsor, Vt. 

Skinner John P., " 

Skinner H. P., Hudson, N. Y. 

Skinner John, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Skerry Robert, Salem, Ms. 

Smith Rev S. F., Newton, Ms. 

Smith Rev A. M., Hartford, Ct. 

Smith Mrs Julia L., " 

Smith Thomas P., Roxbury, Ms. 

Smith Benjamin, Washington, N. H. 

Smith John, Cincinnati, O. 

Smith Mrs Catharine, " 

Smith John J., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Smith George W., Brainerd Bridge, N. Y. 

Smith Samuel, New Brunswick, N. J. 

Smith Rev Francis, Providence, R. I. 

Smith Phillip, Fall River, Ms. 

Smith Rev John, Chilicothe, O. 

Smith John H., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Smith Elbridge, Worcester, Ms. 

Smith Rev N. W., Passumpsic, Vt. 

Smith Rev Howell, Trumansburg, N. Y. 

Smith Rollin C, Detroit, Mich. 

Smith Rev Eli B., New Hampton, N. H. 

Smith Rev Josiah T., Sandisfield, Ms. 

Smith Rev W. W., Jersey city, N. J. 

Smitzer Rev John, Elbridge, N. Y. 

Snyder Rev F., Dayton, O. 

Sommers Rev Charles G., New York city. 

Solomon George, . 

Southworth James E., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Spear Abraham, Palmyra, N. Y. 

Spratt Rev George M., Fairport, N. Y. 

Spear Mrs Clarissa " 

Speir John, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Sprague Rev B. D., . 

Sperry Rev Obed, Romulus, N. Y. 

Spence Rev George S. G., West Wrentham, Ms. 

Spence Mrs A. R., " 

Spink N. N., Wickford, R. I. 

Spencer Rev Wm. H., New York city. 

Stone Eben, Newton, Ms. 

Stone Josiah, Watertown, Ms. 

Stone Daniel, Worcester, Ms. 

Stone Rev Marsena, Norwich, N. Y. 

Stone Rev J. A. B., Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Stone Rev James R., Hartford, Ct. 

Stoddard Rev. Ira J., Nowgong, Assam. 

Stoddard Thomas P., New York city. 

Stevens Rev E. A., Maulmain, Burmah. 

Stevens Rev John, Cincinnati, O. 

Stevens Mrs M. A., " 

Sturdevant Lewis J., Portland, Me. 

Stockbridge Rev John C, Woburn, Ms. 

Stockbridge Rev. Joseph N., U. S. Navy. 

Stockbridge Wm., North Yarmouth, Me. 

Stackpole Reuben M., Roxbury, Ms. 

Stow Baron, D. D., Boston, Ms. 

Stow Mrs Elizabeth L., " 

Stow Rev. Phineas, " 

Stebbins Rev James H., Phelps, N. Y. 

Stanwood Rev Henry, Rush, N. Y. 

Stinipson Rev Hiram K., Wheatland, N. Y. 

Stearns Rev John G., Gorham, N. Y. 

Stearns Rev O. O., Milford, N. H. 

Stearns Rev Oakman S., Southbridge, Ms. 

StiUon Nathan, Franklin, N. Y. 

Stilson Mrs Sophia, West Meredith, N. Y. 

Stelle Rev Lewis F., New Brunswick, N. J. 

Stelle Peter R., New Brunswick, N. J. 
Stelle Bergen, New Brunswick, N. J. 
Stout George H., " 

Stout Rev D. B., Middletown, N. J. 
Stoutenborough Alfred, Paterson, N. J. 
Steward Rev Ira R., New York city. 
Steward Rev David, North Newport, Me. 
Steinmets Adam, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Strong Alvah, Rochester, N. Y. 
Starks Israel, Brockport, N. Y. 
Storer Rev Joseph, Hudson, N. H. 
Stowell Rev A. H., Moriah, N. Y. 
Steadman Ezra, Owego, N. Y. 
Sutherland Rev Simon, Starkey, N. Y. 
Sunderlin Rev Alonzo W., Pen Yan, N Y 
Swaim Rev Samuel B., Worcester, Ms. 
Swaim Thomas, Pemberton, N. J. 
Swick Rev R B., Big Flat, N. Y. 
Swain Rev A. M., Brentford, N. H. 
Swan Rev J. S., New London, Ct. 
Sweet Rev Joel, Berwick, III. 
Swallow Wm., Flemington, N. J. 
Symonds James M., Salem, Ms. 
Sym Rev Wm., Springfield O. 
Sykes Rev James N., Chelsea, Ms. 
Taggart Rev Joseph W., New York city. 
Taylor Rev E. E. L., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Taylor Isaac E., New York city. 
Taylor Stephen W., Lewisburg, Pa. 
Taylor Rev O. D., Moscow, N. Y. 
Taylor Rev T. R., Camden, N. J. 
Teasdale Rev Thomas C, Pittsburg, Pa. 
Teasdale Rev John, Stanhope, N. J. 
Tenny Charles, South Chili, N. Y. 
Tenbrook Rev Andrew, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Teeple Rev J. J., Morrisville, N. Y. 
Thomas Thomas, New York city. 
Thomas Mrs Isabella, " 
Thomas Cornelius W., " 
Thomas Mrs Margaret I., " 
Thomas Augustus, " 

Thomas Miss Fanny M., " 
Thomas Miss Anna, " 
Thomas Mrs Catharine, " 
Thomas John, Cincinnati, O." 
Thresher Mrs Elizabeth F., Dayton, O. 
Thurber Charles, Worcester, Ms. 
Thurber Mrs Lucinda A., Worcester, Ms. 
Thurber Mrs Abigail, " 

Thompson Rev Charles, Rochester, N. Y 
Thorn John, Utica, N. Y. 
Thayer Eli, Worcester, Ms. 
Tingley Rev Timothy C, Canton, Ms. 
Tingley Mrs Nancy B., " 

Tidd John, Woburn, Ms. 
Tiebout Adam T., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Tindall Samuel, Wilmington, Del. 
Todd Wm. W., New York city. 
Todd Mrs Maria C, " 
Todd Wm. J., " 

Townsend James H., " 
Townsend Palmer, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Tolman Rev John N , Carrolton, III. 
Tonkin Rev Henry, Wilton N. H. 
Train Rev Arthur S., Haverhill, Ms. 
Trevor Samuel, Cincinnati, O. 
Trevor John B., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Tracy Rev Oren, Springfield, Ms. 
Tracy Rev Leonard, West Boylston, Ms. 
Tucker Rev Elisha, New York city 
Tucker Mrs Elisha « 

Tucker Rev Levi, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Tucker Rev Alanson, Adrian, Mich. 
Tucker Rev Silas, Racine, Wis. 
Tustin Rev Josiah P., Warren, R. I. 
Tustin Thomas, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Tustin John, " 

Tumbull Rev Robert, Hartford, Ct. 
Tuxbury Isaac, Amesbury, Ms. 
Turney Rev E., Granville, O. 
Tufts Mrs Mary, Fitchburg, Ms. 
Turner Alfred R., Boston, Ms. 
Twiss Rev D. F., Dickertown, N. J. 
Tyler Duty S., NortJi Adams, Ms. 


Life Members of the Union. 


Underbill Peter S., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Upham Joshua, Salem, Ms. 

Upham Rev James, New Hampton, N. H. 

Upham Rev W. P., Cherokee, Cherokee Nation. 

Upton James, Salem, Ms. 

Van Somerin George, Madras Presidency. 

Van Husen Theodore, Albany, N. Y. 

Vanderlip George M., New York city. 

Valentine D. T., " 

Vinal Albert, Cambridge, Ms. 

Vinal Mrs Albert, " 

Vinton Rev J. H., Maulmain, Burmah. 

Vogell Rev H. C, Rome, N. Y. 

Vrooman Rev J. B., Clyde, N. Y. 

Wattson Thomas, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Wattson Mrs Mary, " 

Ward Walter, " 

Ward Andrew, Salem, Ms. 

Ward Israel Jr., " 

Walton Joseph, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Warne Rev Joseph A., " 

Walden Rev J. H., Troy, N. Y. 

Walden Mrs Clarissa L., Troy, N. Y. 

Way land Rev F. Sen., Saratoga, N. Y. 

Wayland Miss Ann E. " 

Wayland Francis, D. D., Providence, R. I. 

Wayland Mrs H. S. H., 

Wayland H. Lincoln, " 

Walker Samuel, Roxbury, Ms. 

Walker Rev John, Bane, Ms. 

Walker Rev Obed, Waldoboro', Me. 

Washburn Rev Job, Thomaston, Me. 

Washburn Henry S., Worcester, Ms. 

Wade Rev Jonathan, Tavoy, Burmah. 

Wade Mrs Deborah B. L., " 

Watrous Rev A. D., , Ct. 

Warren Charles, Worcester, Ms. 
Warren Rev Benjamin, Ovid, N. Y. 
Warren Edward, Fall River, Ms. 
Wallace Thomas, New York city. 
Wardner Rev Chauncy, Covert, N, Y. 
Warner Calvin, Troy, N. Y. 
Wakefield Terence, Boston, Ms. 
Webb Rev G. S., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Webb Rev Wm. R., Lyons, N. Y. 
Weckerly Daniel, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Welch Rev James E., Burlington, N. J. 
Welch B. T., D. D., Albany, N. Y. 
Welch Mary A., " 

Welsh Rev John C, Seekonk, Ms. 
Weaver Rev Charles S., Voluntown, Ct. 
Wescott Rev Isaac, Stillwater, N. Y. 
West John, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Weston Henry G., Peoria, 111. 
Wetherby Rev Jeremiah, Conneaut, O. 
Webster Rev Silas B., Mansfield, O. 
Weeden Stephen R., Providence, R. I. 
Wedge Rev Albert, Pendleton, la. 
Wheelock Rev Alonzo, Sing Sing, N. Y. 
Whitman Mrs Emily, Hartford, Ct. 
Whiting Samuel M., " 

White Daniel, Charlestown, Ms. 
White Roxana, " 

White Samuel K., " 
White Daniel F., " 

White Josiah J., " 

White Rev Samuel, Staten Island, N. Y. 
White Ebenezer Davis, Newton, Ms. 
White Thomas, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Wheeler Nelson, Worcester, Ms. 

Wheeler Rev. O. C, Jersey city, N. J. 
Wheeler Rev Benj., Plaistow, N. H. 
Wheeler James P., Eastport, Me. 
Wheaton J. B., Columbus, O. 
Whitney Rev L., Madison, O. 
Whitney E. S., New York city. 
Whittier Leonard, Haverhill, Ms. 
Whittemore Asa D., Worcester, Ms. 
Wilson Francis N., Catskill, N. Y. 
Wilson James, New Yo'tk city. 
Wilson Rev Adam, Portland, Me. 
Wilson Rev. Wm. V., Kev Port, N. J. 
Wilson D. M., Newark, N. J. 
Wilson Mrs Hannah M., Newark, N. J. 
Wilson Clement A., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Wilson James, New York city. 
Wilson Rev C. E., Bridgeton, N. J. 
Withington Elijah, New York city. 
Winterton Rev Wm., " 
Williams Wm. R., D. D., New York city. 

Williams Rev Benj. S., , N. Y. 

Willianis John M. S., Worcester, Ms. 
Williams Rev N. W., Hampden, Me. 
Williams Rev N. M., Saco, Me. 
Williams Rev S., Pittsburg, Pa. 
Williams Rev A., Ashtabula, O. 
Williams Walter S., Hartford, Ct. 
Williams William, New York city. 
Winter Rev Thomas, Roxbury, Pa. 
Winter Rev J., Warren, O. 

Winter Rev E. T., . 

Wilmarth, Rev I. M., Grafton, Vt. 
Wildman Rev Nathan, Lebanon, Ct. 
Wight L. B., Wales, Ms. 
Wilder J. N., Albany, N. Y. 
Wilder Delia, " 
Wilder Rev L., East Euclid, O. 
Wilkins Rev Stephen, Albany, N. Y, 
Wiggin Rev John W., Benton, N. Y. 
Witherby J. B., Jamaica Plain, Ms, 
Wilber Rev O., South Richland, N. Y. 
Wilcox Rev J. F , Taunton, Ms. 
Wilkinson Christopher, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Willard Rev George A., Crompton, R. I. 
Work Rev Perley, Sheboigan, W. T. 
Woodin Rev Peter, O-swego, N. Y. 
Woods Alva, D. D., Providence, R. I, 
Wood Ephraim, Camden, Me. 
Wood Daniel, Lebanon, Me. 
Wood Rev N. N., Zanesville, O. 
Woodward Calvin, Taunton, Ms. 
Woodward Rev Jonas, Penfield, N. Y. 
Worrell George P., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Worden Rev J. B., Jackson, Pa. 
Wolcott Epaphroditus, Rochester, N. Y. 
Worth Rev Edmund, Fisherville, N. H. 
Wooster Rev Henry, Deep River, Ct. 
Woodman Joshua, Cornville, Me. 
Wright Rev Lyman, Fayetteville, N. Y. 
Wright Eber, Cabotville, Ms. 
Wright Rev T. G., Claremont, N. H. 
Wyckoff Wm. H., New York city. 
Wyckoff Mrs Sarah " 
Wyckoff" George, " 

Wyckoff- John N., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Yeomans Henry P., Providence, R. I. 
Yeomans Miss Mary A. B., " 
Young Edwin, Philadelphia, Pa. 
York Charles, Norwich, Ct 
Zebley John T., Wilmington, Del. 

1848.] Proposed Amendment. 4!||» 


The Committee,' appointed to consider the proposed Amendment to 
the third Article of the Constitution of the A. B. M. Union, would 
present the following report. 

The subject referred to your Committee is itself one of much 
complexity. Scattered, too, as the members of the Committee were 
by their residence, over a wide region, it has been difficult for them 
to secure by writing, the free interchange and mutual modification 
of opinion that were desirable. Meeting, personally, but at a very 
recent date, the present expression of their views was prepared with 
a haste, that must plead in extenuation alike of what may seem its 
defects or its redundancies. 

Coming as Christian Missions do from Heaven; it is certain, 
also, that just in proportion as they are wisely and successfully 
prosecuted, they will bring us, in spirit and temper, nearer to Heav- 
en. It is in a temper of lowliness, docility and self-distrust, and in 
the spirit of mutual deference and brotherly concession that we may 
expect most conformity to the Cross of the Great Missionary and 
Apostle of our profession, and thus approximate most closely the 
Throne, before which some of our missionary laborers and many of 
our missionary converts are at this hour rejoicing, and to which we 
are or should be following them. The crying desolations of the 
heathenism that summons us to its relief and enlightenment; — the 
self-abnegation of the Ransom that bought us, and of which we wit- 
ness to a doomed and self-idolizing race; — the lowly charity and 
self-renunciation that are characteristic traits of the heirs of that 
Heaven to which we are ourselves invited of Christ, and to which 
we invite our fellow-sinners in his name; — all remind us, that, in 
this matter at least, there should be no tenacity for our own opin- 
ions, no pre-judgments, and no bickerings. The most simple, fra- 
ternal, and economical agency that the churches can devise, let us 
seek : let it be only spiritual and scriptural. Twenty-seven years 
since, the Baptist General Convention was chartered. Of its found- 
ers many are now at rest. The interval elapsed is the ordinary life- 
time of a generation. That period seems to many, perhaps, " time 
whereof the memorij of man runneth not to the contrary.'' A course or 
system of that date is to some clothed with the authority of an an- 
tiquity immemorial and uncontrovertible. Yet were our fathers who 
founded that most honored and useful body to return to our earth, 
and to resume the unfinished tasks they bequeathed us there, we 
see no reason to suppose that they would have framed in 1848, with 
the benefits of the experience of a quarter of a century, the same 
system which, comparatively inexperienced, they adopted in 1821. 
The Convention was composed of delegates or representatives, (for 
the Constitution uses either term,) made such by the payment, an- 
nually to be renewed, of one hundred dollars. These delegates 

1 12 Proposed Amendment to the Third [May, 

represented either individuals, or churches, or associations, or vol- 
untary societies, or State Conventions of our churches. On the 
same platform, and with a vote alike weighty, stood the representa- 
tive who hut spoke for himself singly, and the representative who 
assumed to speak for the 20,000 or 70,000 Baptists of an entire 
State. Would it not, in any other organization, have seemed 
strange representation, thus to give an equal influence to the solita- 
ry township elector, and to the senator who rose up in the name of 
an embodied State? Here at least was strange inequality. The 
objects of the Convention, again, were multiform, and ill-deflned, if 
not illimitable. In the session of 1826, for instance, the body 
passed resolutions on Home Missions, and on Foreign; on the Sun- 
day school, and on the Tract cause; on books; on the private char- 
acter of agents; and on colleges. Was it strange, that, at the same 
session, they found it necessary to protest by solemn resolution 
against the fears of Baptists in the Western States, that the body 
might attempt to interfere with the independence of the churches?* 
Could, however, such protests, or their own personal principles and 
rare excellencies of character, have saved the churches ultimately 
from the inevitable workings of the system? If all these objects 
came legitimately within their powers, and the appropriate field of 
their duties, they were virtually a Denominational Congress; and 
then, a session of one week, or of two weeks even, was not suffi- 
cient for the wise and due despatch of their appropriate business. 
It became, however, a growing and a general conviction, in the 
body itself, and in our churches, that this was not the proper em- 
ployment of the Convention, and that to local or specific agencies 
they might more wisely commit other objects, and concentrate their 
own cares and counsels on the single theme of Foreign Missions. 
In 1845, an amended Constitution was conditionally adopted. In 
March, 1846, the Legislatures of Pennsylvania and Massachusetts 
passed, on request of the Convention, the Acts altering their appel- 
lation to that of the American Baptist Missionary Union, and 
limiting their objects to the single, but in its singleness vast, field 
— the diffusion, by Missions, of the gospel of Chi-ist throughout 
that world, of which He is the rightful and predicted Lord. In May 
of that year, the Constitution thus already conditionally accepted, 
and by these statutes legally recognized, was adopted, uncondition- 
ally and definitively. 

That Constitution changed the membership, as well as defined 
anew the province and labors, of the Union. It had been annual 
exclusively. It became a life membership exclusively. It had been 
of delegates or representatives. Each member now appeared, on 
the platform of the Union, as an individual, representing there but 
his own views. The new Constitution was received with unwonted 

'^ Proceedings of the Fifth Triennial Meeting, held in New York. ^priZ. 1826. "As 
fears have existed to some extent in the Western States, and elsewhere, that at some fu- 
ture day this body might attempt to interfere with the independence of churches, there- 

Resolved, In accordance with its former views, and with well known and long estab- 
lished Baptist principles, this Convention cannot exercise the least authority over the 
g^overnment of churches." Session of Monday evening, May 8, 1 826, page 20. 

1848.] Article of the Constitution. 113 

solemnity and unanimity. If ever a cloud of influences from the 
Highest veiled the work of man, and seemed to reveal the present 
God, it seemed then. But at the time, it was known that some 
brethren loving missions clung yet to the idea o( representatwn ; and 
desired, if not the restoration of a membership exclusively annual, 
at least its engraftment upon the new instrument, as a collateral 
branch with the life membership. At the same session which defin- 
itively adopted the Constitution, the resolution was offered by the 
Rev. Alfred Bennett, 

" That any church or other religious body, choosing to represent it- 
self in one annual meeting only, upon the payment of one hundred dol- 
lars, shall enjoy, for the time being, all the rights and privileges of a 

The resolution was, after some discussion, referred to the Board of 
Managers, with instructions that they should report upon it at their 
next annual meeting. That annual meeting, the session of 1847, 
was held in Ohio, where many of the members, long accustomed to 
attend, could not be present. A Committee was appointed by the 
Board, to consider, during that session of the Board, the resolution 
so referred — which Committee recommended the postponement of 
the decision upon it for another year, and the appointment of a spe- 
cial Committee of nine, who should give to the subject " a thorough 
investigation," and report at the present session. The subject has 
been thus for two years before our churches, though but for the past 
year under the charge and special consideration of your Committee. 
It has been widely discussed. There has been to some extent a 
change of opinion. But there is not yet entire harmony. The pre- 
ceding remarks, as giving a history of the origin and scope of the 
question before the churches, may, it is hoped, aid those who ap- 
proach the decision of the subject, to form their decision in full view 
of all the past and prospective bearings of the proposed amendment. 

Your Committee have supposed it due, alike to the brethren de- 
siring, and to those resisting such change, to the love of brotherly 
union, and to the interests of our Missions, that there should be a 
more thorough intelligence, on either hand, of the grounds urged to 
sustain and to dissuade from the alteration. In the "investigation," 
which, as is above shown, your Committee were expressly appoint- 
ed to make, they have supposed it their duty : first, to array the 
considerations pleaded on either side by the friends and by the op- 
posers of the amendment; next, to remind themselves of the singular 
intricacies which embarrass the whole question of the relations be- 
tween the churches on the one hand, and voluntary organizations 
on the other, and to bring the scattered hints of Scripture to bear 
upon these intricacies; next, to ascertain, or estimate as far as we 
may, the extent to which this feeling, in favor of the change sought, 
pervades our churches; and lastly, to suggest the conclusions, hur- 
ried and imperfect as they might be, which your Committee have 

I. In favor of a change, the following are, it is believed, the 
main considerations urged. Life membership, it is supposed, is an 
innovation upon the past missionary policy of the American Bap- 
tists. Our fathers had an annual delegation. Was not this the 

114 Proposed Amendment to the Third [May, 

more democratic mode? In giving to a body of men a tenure for 
life of the place which authorizes them to manage our Missionary 
colonies on the shores of Burmah, China and Africa, are we not 
creating a religious aristocracy, a class of men having privileges 
life-long and indefeasible? They may become unworthy; but they 
are irresponsible and irremovable. They may, as pastors, become 
errorists, or by open immorality, render themselves an offence and 
a burden to the churches; and yet they remain on the registers of 
your Missionary Association, and though long since blotted by a 
righteous indignation from the church books, are ineffaceable from 
the rolls of that Society, which aims to plant what should be pattern 
churches amid the wastes of heathenism. They may, again, never 
have been church members. The irreligious children of our Chris- 
tian friends may scout alike the faith and the practice of their pious 
fathers, and yet, when parental fondness gave them a footing on the 
missionary platform, there they stand, worldly and heretical — it may 
be even profligate and blasphemous; and yet members, and if they 
choose to be so, voters in our missionary affairs. Is it not, it is 
asked, if we allow to such a class space on our platform, better to 
have at their side a class, coming in upon a smaller payment, and 
holding membership but for the year; if found unworthy, not re-ap- 
pointed, coming freshly from the churches, and speaking distinctly 
and boldly the varying wishes of their constituents? It is further 
contended that the missionary work is properly the work of the 
churches — that their Great Founder framed them as missionary 
bodies, and that the task, therefore, of conducting, if not of excln- 
sively sustaining Missions, should belong to them, — the children by 
faith of faithful Abraham, — rather than be surrendered to, or even 
shared with the Philistine and the Canaanite, who have no place in 
Zion, and who bring an alien dialect and an alien heart into the 
councils of God's Israel. Your Missionary Union, it is said, pro- 
vides that its officers and missionaries should be regular Baptists : 
why not extend the same restriction to its life members, the electors 
of its office-bearers, and the advisers of its missionary laborers? 
Lastly, it is argued, must not the millennial triumphs of the last 
ages of the Christian church be preceded by missionary activity, 
like that of the ^rsi ages of the church? Should not your mission- 
ary organizations, if not prematurely of that kind, slope at least, 
like the ways of a ship soon to be launched — slope towards a better 
and more primitive state of things, when each of our churches shall 
sustain its foreign missionary as well as-its pastor; and thus make, 
by its home and its foreign messenger, the proclamation of the same 
gospel to races and regions that are, perchance, the antipodes of 
each other? We want, it is said, a Missionary Society that will 
naturally, with the growth of missionary zeal, drop apart into the 
old, the simple, and energetic system of Missions, practised in those 
times when apostles yet preached, and when the word of God grew 
mightily and prevailed, when entire fortunes were flung into the 
treasuries of the church, and nations were born to Christ as in a 
day. Now these arguments, urged as in many instances they are, 
l^y true and tried friends of our Missions, deserve respectful and 
prayerful consideration. It should be observed, however, that if 

1848.] Article of the Constitution. 115 

these suggestions are conclusive, they require not only the change 
in behalf of which they are adduced, or the engrafting of annual 
upon life memberships, whilst both are permitted to remain collat- 
eral branches in one conjoint system. If well put, these arguments 
go yet further in the practical inferences they suggest, and would 
seem to make imperative upon us the total abandonment, at what- 
ever risk, and at whatever sacrifice, of the scheme of life mem- 
berships, and would demand of us a return to exclusive annual del- 

Some, who, for themselves individually, prefer the existing sys- 
tem, yet for the sake of brethren whose wishes they respect and 
whom they see swayed by these arguments, would, studying the 
things that make for peace, re-admit the principle of delegation, on 
an annual payment of at least one half the sum required to consti- 
tute life membership. 

II. Against the alteration thus advocated, either in part or in 
whole, brethren urge the following, as in their view being consid- 
erations of equivalent, and even preponderating weight. The new 
instrument is, it is said, of very recent adoption, and deserves, be- 
fore amendment, at least its full term of trial. It is urged, also, 
that our past missionary history shows the inconvenient and embar- 
rassing character of the old platform. There was a waning of mis- 
sionary zeal under its action, a threatened dissipation and drying 
up of missionary funds, and a diversion in the deliberative meetings 
of the Convention to other and subordinate topics, from the single 
and paramount object of evangelizing the nations for Christ. As to 
the imputation of aristocratic tendencies, it is, on this side, utterly 
denied; and it is argued that our new and existing system is far 
more democratic and popular than was the former, which it has re- 
placed. To keep a pastor in his place as an annual delegate from 
his church for nine consecutive years, the payment was once re- 
quired from that church of $900. If he continued for twenty years 
their missionary delegate and their pastor, they needed to expend 
for his place on the platform $2,000. Now, inst&ad of the one man, 
some nine or some twenty men are in this space of time made per- 
manently members; and surely democracy in our religious institu- 
tions has more to dread from the exclusive rights of the one man, 
than from the common rights of a score. The old system as re- 
quiring the more money was essentially the more aristocratic. It is 
stated, for instance, by one of your Committee, that the State of 
New Jersey, under the older law of membership, had but an aver- 
age of some ten delegates in your annual meetings; whereas now 
she has some thirty-five life members. The basis of local represen- 
tation is thus widely broadened; the elective franchise, in choosing 
our Missionary Boards, is very greatly extended through our 
churches. As to the objection of an unworthy, or worldly, or ex- 
communicated man remaining still an elector and life member, the 
reply is made, that, in the wide multiplication of members, such are 
little able or likely to control our action, or even to molest our de- 
liberations by their presence. If they came, they would be so out- 
numbered, as to become as innocuous and as little able to color our 
policy, as the mire, washed into the Hudson from the streets of the 

116 Proposed Amendment to the Third [May, 

city where we are now met, is to choke the harbors of the commer- 
cial metropolis planted on its banks where the river disembogues 
into the ocean. The element is neutralized by the vast and over- 
whelming floods of a sounder membership. But if this be not sufii- 
cient protection, why, it is said, not classify the life members into 
two orders.^ Let the one be the ordinary life member, who must all 
be male church members; the other the honorary life member, in- 
cluding all others than these. The honorary life member might 
have a seat, but not a vote. And to go yet further, the Board of 
Managers might have discretionary power given them, to drop from 
the roll of life members any church member expelled for immorality 
or heresy, or any honorary life member become notoriously unwor- 
thy of fellowship in so high and honorable an enterprise. It is fur- 
ther said, that if we admit, from the desire of conciliating brethren 
who prefer that system, annual membership at a moderate sum of 
fifty or thirty dollars, we shall be, year by year, invaded by the pro- 
posals of amendments involving yet more dangerous concessions. 
These amendments, pleading the narrow means of some feebler 
churches, will sink yet lower the terms of admission, until ten dol- 
lars even may constitute a member for the year. Thus it will be 
put into the power of any wealthier churches having an object to be 
attained, and procuring the appointment of the annual meeting of 
the Union for their own vicinage, to flood us by a large and local 
delegation of annual members, sweeping before their numbers and 
inexperience and zeal all opposition that might be attempted on the 
part of long missionary experience and true missionary ardor; and 
all, but to subserve some transitory and neighborhood interests. 
Brethren who deprecate a change urge further, that the system of 
life membership gives us a class of members who from their fixed 
position, and tenure of a permanent influence, will have an ac- 
quaintance and an experience in the management of Missions, that 
could not be secured under the older system. And lastly, it is de- 
nied that, as Baptists, we have any right to confound our voluntary 
organizations with our ecclesiastical, and to admit into these volun- 
tary societies the dangerous principle of church representation. In 
the popular sense of that term, and as it is understood by most in 
our churches, and as will be virtually claimed by many of our mis- 
sionary contributors should our Union be at their desire remodelled, 
that representation includes legislation. Now, against this, it is said, 
that, in all fairness, legislation, supposing the history of the church 
of Christ had shown it to be otherwise safe, ought to include also 
taxatio7i; and that the voluntary society based upon it, and claiming 
to represent and embody law for the churches, should also raise as- 
sessors to fix on our wealthier churches, and on our church mem-, 
hers, the quota due from their affluence, but denied by their 
covetousness, to the work of evangelization. As to the danger i» 
the existing body, that it should pervert either funds or power, it is 
replied, thfit it is a body now mainly dependent, and it should ever be 
kept dependent, on q.nnual contributions from the churches; that to 
win from the churches this its yearly bread, it must do faithfully 
its yearly task; and that failing to efiect this, it will at once find the 
ghurcbes withdrawing their sypport. It is, then, ]e^ with its every 

1848.] Article of the Constitution. 117 

channel of influence dry, the reservoir of its exchequer drained to 
utter bankruptcy, and like " a broken cistern," or a ruined aque- 
duct, it remains powerless for evil, soon as it ceases to earn the 
confidence of the churches, and to be any longer in their eyes pow^- 
erful for good. 

III. Now, on either hand, the considerations thus urged must 
be allowed even by those on the opposite side, to be not without 
their plausibility and force. Perhaps there has been, on neither 
side, the full understanding of the positions actually held by breth- 
ren upon the other; and objections may by the advocates of either 
view have been pushed too far. May we not, then, safely invite 
brethren who advocate and who oppose the change, to examine the 
very intricate question of the relations of the Christian church, as 
its Framer left it, to voluntary organizations? The importance of 
this topic, and the haze of misconception which in many minds ob- 
scures it, must excuse the minuteness and detail of our attempted 

Baptists believe the church to be (considered on the one side,) a 
pure democracy, since all its members enter it of their own choice, 
and neither by birth, nor act of others, nor civil pains and compul- 
sion, can they become rightfully heirs and fellow citizens there. 
But (viewed on another side, and this aspect or side of the great 
fact being as true and as sure as the other and opposite side, al- 
ready stated,) the Christian church is a monarchy, and an autocra- 
cy even, in which Jesus Christ is the uncontrolled Sovereign and 
the only Legislator, sufficient, infallible and eternal. Baptists also 
believe, and in this belief many of the most spiritual even among 
Episcopalians and Romanists unite with them, that the church of 
the Scriptures, where it is a visible church, is a single, local con- 
gregation of faithful men; that the notion, so prevalent in our ordi- 
nary discourse, and even assumed often in our ecclesiastical argu- 
mentations as an axiom, the existence of a visible church, compiis- 
ing all the Christians of a denomination, or of a land, or of an age, 
is an unscriptural figment — a mere, baseless fallacy, utterly dis- 
countenanced by the New Testament. That book, in speaking of 
the Christians of Asia, calls them not the Asiatic church, but the 
churches of Asia. The only other one church, known in Scripture, 
is the invisible and universal church, whose members are all of them 
saints, including these, all of these and none but these, embracing those 
of them to us now dead, those who are now living on earth, and others 
a great multitude yet to live. This church instead of being, as our 
daily expressions assume, visible, is in fact as yd so to none but its 
Great Head, the Lamb, in whose book of Life it is registered. As 
the visible church is a single local congregation, and as the general 
and universal church is as yet an invisible church, — Baptists have in 
general strenuously contended that the single Christian congrega- 
tion has no earthly, ecclesiastical organization above it. They have 
recognized the right, the privilege, and the duty of cooperation 
among these several independent churches. But they have no right, 
and would regard it as no privilege, to come together and by their 
cooperation form the Baptist Church of the United States; or the 
British Baptist Church, in case the independent churches of our 

1 18 Proposed Amendment to the Third [May, 

views in Great Britain should so combine. Baptists have protested 
loudly and sternlj, and contended even to the death against the right 
of any council- or association, meeting in the name of the churches, 
to lord it over their discipline or doctrine. Is there, then, no coop- 
eration possible among them? Much, and most effective coopera- 
tion, wo answer, long as Christ and the Holy Spirit inhabit these 
several churches, and by such inhabitation give them the necessary 
unity and mutual love. Without that Spirit they are, and it is safer 
for them that they should remain, a rope of sand; but when pervad- 
ed by that divine and assimilating love, the sand is molten into a sea 
of glass. Their cohesion depends upon their piety. 

In political science, government is considered as having its three 
branches; the executive, the judiciary, and the legislative. Bap- 
tists believe, that in the New Testament polity, the legislation of the 
church ceased with the completion of the New Testament canon; 
and that on the death of the last apostle, this, the legislation of the 
Christian church, became a fixed, finished fact, to which nothing 
could be added, and whence nothing may be taken, on peril of dam- 
nation to the conscious and wilful innovator; and that all improve- 
ments and appendages, attempted by the laws and canons of synods, 
are gross usurpations on the kingly prerogative of our one Lord 
Jesus Christ, and gross invasions of the liberties of us the Lord's 
freedmen. As to the judiciary powers of the Christian church, we 
suppose them to reside in the Christian Scriptures, as expounded 
by the ever-living and infallible Spirit — expounded to the individual 
conscience, and to the prayerful church; and that the church, in 
Christian discipline, exercises such judicial power, when devotion- 
ally consulting Scripture and receiving the aids of that Spirit, or it 
may rather be said, the Spirit of Christ judges, in them and by them, 
the offending disciple. As to ihe executive power of the Christian 
church, it dwells in Christ and the Spirit of Christ, as inhabiting, 
as prompting, as endowing, and as blessing His servants, both indi- 
vidually and as churches. They work, and He works; for by Him 
and in Him is their strength and life. The perpetual presidency of 
the Lord Jesus Christ in the assemblies of His believing people, is 
the safeguard, and glory, and strength of our churches. The per- 
petual immanence and intercession of the Holy Ghost in the hearts 
and assemblies of a devout church — this is the breath of our nostrils 
as to our spiritual life and well-being, and this the patent of our in- 
defectibility and invincibility. Soon as the Spirit is grieved and 
goes forth, our polity is such that the process of ecclesiastical disin- 
tegration at once commences. When the breath or earthly spirit 
goes out of a man, his body rots, and the members fall apart. 
When the fruit becomes decayed, -its skin no longer holds the pulp, 
but it loses shape, and solidity, and cohesion. So it is in what we 
deem the polity of the New Testament churches. As long as they 
remain spiritual and prayerful, our churches with Christ in their 
hearts, and Christ in their assemblies, have, on our system, energy, 
and elasticity, and boundless enterprise, jand yet perfect union. But 
when piety dies, the unity and power disappear, as they ought of 
right to do, for unity without piety makes the church a curse to the 
world. Other systems hold the ecclesiastical continuity and organ- 

1848.] Article of the Constitution. 119 

ization unbroken, when the spirit and inward life has vanished. 
They galvanize the corpse of a Christian church into ghastly and 
murderous activity, after the breath of the Divine life has quitted it. 
The purpose of these prolonged explanations is to bring into a 
strong light the fact that in any attempt to create for the churches, 
through voluntary Associations or otherwise, a legislative power, we 
are sinning against the first principles of our own Baptist polity, and 
what is much worse, usurping upon the prerogatives of the Lord 
Jesus Christ. In our attempts at united effort we may thus stumble 
unwittingly upon legislation. What is our denominational mode of 
obtaining co-operation as churches? We express union and sym- 
pathy, as independent churches, by delegates and by epistles. The 
epistle is the written delegate; the delegate is the oral epistle. By 
epistles we dismiss and receive members interchangeably with each 
other. In some cases, both epistles and delegates are employed. 
In the ordination of a minister, delegates of neighboring churches 
go to express sympathy, and to employ their individual judgment 
and experience in trying the worth and call of the candidate. The 
word for delegates which our fathers delighted to employ was the 
scriptural term, "the messengers of the churches." In the work 
of relieving the poor churches of Judea, Paul would have the 
churches elsewhere send delegates or messengers to bear their 
bounty. And so in the only authoritative church council which we 
know, (for inspired apostles partook in its decisions,) — the council 
which forbade meats offered to idols and the use of blood, — delegates 
or messengers were sent out to announce to the churches abroad 
this decree of apostles. Now some, to appearance, have assum- 
ed that the delegate and the representative are equivalent terms. 
But is it so? The delegate is not a representative, in the popular, 
and as we suppose, the proper sense of this last title. A represen- 
tative presents in some remote spot, as if in person there, the indi- 
vidual or the body sending him; and his presence binds on the party 
sending him all the legitimate acts of the conference to which they 
thus sent him. If our views as Baptists are correct, our churches 
cannot give legislative power, because they have it not; and coun- 
cils or voluntary Societies have therefore no right to take legislative 
power as a gifl from the churches, even should the churches assume 
to make such gifl. But overlooking this fact, forgetting that the legis- 
lation of the church was settled and closed centuries since; looking at 
the democratic side of the church organization in the voluntary char- 
acter of its membership, and overlooking the regal side of that organi- 
zation in the sovereignty of the Lord Jesus Christ; then, on this 
false assumption that the church is, merely and purely, a democra- 
cy, building the inference that, like any other democracy, it should 
make and mend its own laws; on these false premises building still 
another false assumption, that the several independent democracies 
of the various separate churches may come together, by their repre- 
sentatives, and make one conjoint democratic confederacy, which 
shall legislate for its constituent churches, and yet another f^lse as- 
sumption, that the messenger or delegate of the primitive churches 
was what we call a representative, sent to similar confederacies; — 
thus, we say, heaping baseless assumptions one on another, good 

120 Proposed Amendment to the Third [May, 

men loving freedom and Scripture, build up a system which is nei- 
ther friendly to Scriptural truth or practical freedom. We said, the 
delegate of church to church is not, in the ordinary sense of that 
term, a,representative. The true representative is a Congressman 
and a legislator. The Christian delegate is rather a counsellor than 
a Congressman; an administrative rather than a legislative officer; 
applying laws already made, but not entitled to make laws for his 
employers. The seventy elders chosen to aid Moses would not have 
been entitled, after applying to individual cases the laws given on 
Mount Sinai, to have gone on amending, enlarging or abridging Je- 
hovah's oracles. They were not legislative officers. 

Now for certain administrative purposes the church may use vol- 
untary organizations. The church member may, on the same Sab- 
bath, and in obedience to one and the same Sovereign Jesus Christ, 
give out of the same earnings of the week one part to the Church, 
and a second part to the Town Poor Fund, a civil voluntary organi- 
zation, and a third part to the Tract, Sabbath school, or Missionary 
Society, a religious voluntary organization. But as he may not let 
the voluntary organization of his civil rulers in the town, or state, 
or nation, shape his religious opinions or acts, so he may not allow 
the religious voluntary organization to claim such control. Our 
missionary societies have no right to ordain ministers, or to disci- 
pline the churches of converted heathen abroad or the churches of 
Christians at home. They are fiscal and administrative agencies, 
which the Christians of the churches employ. The churches them- 
selves, or Christ rather, and the spirit of Christ in those churches, 
furnish the missionaries. And so Christ's Scriptures, and the Spirit 
in their individual consciences, and pastors, and churches, as apply- 
ing prayerfully those Scriptures, must discipline the new converts. 
And far as they are really spiritual and scriptural, they will neces- 
sarily heed and value the sympathy and counsel of Christians and 
churches at home, who are also scriptural and spiritual. But each 
church on the Irrawaddy as on the Hudson, is of right, by Christ's 
irrepealable decree, free and uncontrollable of man, subject in reli- 
gious matters to no hierarchy, council, or confederacy; not our sub- 
jects and vassals spiritually, more than we are theirs. 

When the system of literal and proper representation was intro- 
duced into the early Christian churches, it began with those of 
Greece, and was a reminiscence of their old republics and Amphic- 
tyonic Councils. In the early and middle ages of the Roman pon- 
tiffs, these representative bodies, the church synods, favored politi- 
cal liberty, against the despotism of emperors, and against a stern 
and bloody feudalism. But they, from an early period, subverted 
religious liberty by consolidating ecclesiastical power. A central 
despotism thus sprung up, before which the haughtiest of earthly 
monarchs grew pale, in the core of which sate Antichrist fully form- 
ed, and over the throne of whose guilty and impious arrogance the 
Apocalypse has rolled its heaviest thunders and is pouring out vials 
of wrath not yet emptied to their last dregs. Representation, in the 
popular sense, however necessary in the State to political liberty, 
is in the Christian Church, unwarranted and antichristian, because 

1848.] Article of the Constitution. 121 

it legislates itself into Christ's seat, and revises His statute-book, 
and enslaves His freedmen. 

Now if our churches in claiming the representative principle, 
mean what their words mean, and we (ear that many from heedless- 
ness do mean just this, they have already past the Rubicon, and 
their fancied democracy has taken the tirst and decisive step in the 
way to Rome. It wants but time, and development, and the heart's 
treachery, and Satan's vigilant activity to bring in all the rest — the 
crosier, the canon, the tiara and the Pontiff — infallibility and despot- 
ism, and Antichrist. 

How, we ask again, were Missions conducted of old? Have ours 
a scriptural pattern.'' Did the first Christians repudiate all aid fronj 
the world.'' One text would at first seem to favor this supposition, 
where John commends the missionary laborers as worthy to be 
brought forward on their journey after a godly sort, because that for 
Christ's name they went forth " taking nothing of the Gentiles." But 
that this was not the law of missionary labor in all cases we see 
from Paul's history. Whilst laboring in the Corinthian church, he 
refused, indeed, the contributions even of the Christians there. Not, 
as he declares, that it was wrong to accept these, for as he says, he 
only and Barnabas of all the apostles refrained thus. Elsewhere we 
learn tliat while in Thessalonica he received, once and again, the aid 
of the Philippian church, and in his ^2d letter to the Corinthians he 
even proposes to be brought on his way, or aided, by them as he goes 
to the churches in Judea. Nor did he scorn the acceptance of 
friendly offices and help from the heathen. The barbarous people 
of Melita at his departure loaded him and his fellow voyagers with 
such things as were necessary. It seems highly improbable that all 
these benefactors were converts. To go higher than this, the only 
infallible and perfect Missionary the world ever saw, or ever shall 
see, received, if not money yet money's worth, in his missionary 
travels, from every host at whose table he sate, or under whose roof, 
or within whose fishing bark he was received. Were these all con- 
verts? Simon the leper, who while entertaining him was rebuked 
by him; Zaccheus the publican, the member of a class generally 
and but too justly odious for their unrighteous gains; and the woman 
whose alabaster box anointed him for his burial; all were mission- 
ary contributors, and Christ received their offerings to forward his 
missionary career. 

It seems then probable from our Lord's history, and that of his 
apostles, that the Christian missionary may receive aid for his mis- 
sionary work, from others than acknowledged Christians. If we 
ought of right to refuse such contributions from the unconverted to 
aid in diffusing the gospel abroad, why accept the offerings of the 
unconverted congregation to aid in sustaining the gospel at home'? 
If we refuse to take from the unregenerate and the worldly their of- 
ferings to the Foreign Mission treasury, why not, in consistency, 
require Christian ships and Christian navigators, as well as patrons 
exclusively Christian, for the transmissal of our missionaries; and 
why not hold Paul a sinner exceedingly, because he allowed him- 
self, prisoner as he was, but having yet much influence with the 
centurion Julius, to be embarked by that centurion in the vessel, 

122 Proposed Amendment to the Third [May, 

on whose prow stood the idol statues of Castor and Pollux, gods of 
the very heathen he Paul was sent to denounce? 

The world, it would seem, may share in the work. But should 
they control it? Certainly not. The churches should govern it. 
But how so? Are the missionary organizations to be made, formally 
and authoritatively, a part of our church economy? Have we a 
scriptural warrant for that? The missions of the Christian church, 
in their earliest and most missionary era, do not seem to have been 
sustained by a great ecclesiastical fund, authoritatively levied, and 
which ecclesiastical rulers were formally to dispense. It seems to 
have been then, as now, left very much to individual conscience, 
that nothing, as says the apostle Paul, " might be done as of con- 
straint but willingly." Even those religious communions of our 
own day, who have held most tenaciously the doctrines that we re- 
pudiate, of a great, visible, and earthly church, and that this visible 
church is the only competent missionary organization, have, we be- 
lieve, found very little success in the attempt to reduce their own 
missionary theory into practice. Their ecclesiastical communion 
they cannot succeed in making into an efficient missionary orgiani- 
zation. The niost efficient missionary institutions of Rome herself, 
perfect as is her ecclesiastical machinery, are not, in our own age 
at least, ecclesiastical organizations; but voluntary societies, the 
Lyons Society in France, and the Leopold Foundation in Austria, 
appealing each of them to individual contributors and receiving each 
what it may be able to solicit, not what it can assess and levy, from 
the nations. 

But supposing that we, who allow, as a denomination, no general, 
visible church on earth, undertake to resolve our churches, as such, 
into the only accredited channels of missionary zeal and missionary 
liberality, there are two difficulties that to your Committee seem in- 
superable. Even those of our brethren who contend most strenu- 
ously for a membership of our missionary societies that shall be 
exclusively Christian and denominational, are obliged to make their 
missionary organization rest on a moneyed basis. The contributors 
of a certain sum are members for the year or for life. But if the 
church and the missionary society are co-extensive, as their theory 
supposes, what right have they to put a church organization on a 
moneijed basis, especially an organization for the preaching the gos- 
pel, when the gospel, the divine and fundamental law of that 
church, calling the church into existence and controlling it, — the 
gospel, the very errand on which the missionary is sent by the or- 
ganization, — finds its glory and the evidence of its divine origin in that 
it is preached to the poor. The Christian church as its divine founder 
left it, invited the penniless, the neglected and the outcast, the most 
destitute of the destitute, the forlornest of the forlorn, the paupers 
to whom man then allotted nor roof when living, nor grave when 
dead, and to whom even now the hospital almost loathes to open its 
gates. Is there not some inconsistency in calling the missionary 
society a church organization; and then excluding from this church 
organization the converted pauper, who is a church member, because 
like Lazarus he has only prayers and not coin to offer for his share 
in the membership, and on the missionary platform? Is not this 

1848.] Article of the Constitution. 123 

making g-oM a platform where Christ has made grace such? This 
is one ditficulty in their theory, and to us it is insurmountable. An- 
other is this. If, in endeavoring to avoid this evil, you set up the 
principle that every church member, poor or rich, is from his stand- 
ing in the church, a member of your missionary organization, how- 
will you, then, shut out from the control of the missionary work the 
many Christians, and churches even, who as yet have shown no ad- 
equate interest in the work? Would not this be to repeat the fla- 
grant injustice which Solomon detected and forbade, when the mother 
who had overlaid her own babe, claimed the charge of the surviving 
child, the son of another and more careful parent? Churches who have 
ignored, in that part at least, the missionary charter of their divine 
Founder, and extirpated from their own bosom all life of missionary 
zeal, till " naught there is heard to peep or to mutter" of sympathy 
for the heathen — are these to be indiscriminately entrusted with the 
care of fostering the infant missionary enterprises of the day? Give 
rather the lamb to be suckled by the she-wolf 

No — let it rather be understood that the independent and uncon- 
federated churches remain, as Christ works in them, the great agen- 
cy to furnish pastors and missionary teachers, and in allowing or 
disallowing fellowship to the converts from heathenism, and in recog- 
nizing and trying the gifts of the candidate for missionary toils. 
Then the individual zeal of church members, aided by all in the 
church or out of the church who may choose thus to obey the sum- 
mpns of Christ to sympathy for the destitute, will furnish the requi- 
site funds. The missionary society becomes thus a fiscal, advisory 
and administrative agency to collect and disburse these funds, and 
to counsel and sustain these missionaries. They are not, in such 
case, a regular ecclesiastical organization, the virtual representa- 
tives, the senators and conscript fathers of the churches. They 
have no such rights. And it is, perhaps, well that the churches 
should have, in the very terms of missionary membership and in the 
consequent limitations of their powers, a perpetual monument set 
up, as it were, in protest against all possible claim of ecclesiastical 
power. The vital missionary agency is happily beyond our control 
and above our reach. The helm is not given to our weak and mor- 
tal hands. The Pilot who points the prow, and watches the heavens 
to guide our missionary way, is older than the stars, and than the 
keel of the missionary church that he guides ; for he is the Ancient 
of Days, and his goings forth have been from everlasting. Christ, 
by His spirit working in His people, is the great executive agency 
of the missionary work. Missionary societies are but a portion of 
the voluntary and fiscal arrangements of the crew amongst them- 
selves, but which neither control the course of the voyage, nor con- 
struct the chart. To the churches, and to the truth, and the love 
of the truth in them, rather than to any provisions of limitation in the 
platform of our voluntary societies we must look as our chief human 
safeguards, against a perversion of missionary funds and against a 
misdirection of our associated missionary efforts. Human policy 
and ecclesiastical nursing fathers have often, in seeking a good end, 
by their own arbitrary methods, virtually set aside the simpler and 
wiser safeguards of Christ's own providing. His treasury is the 

124 Proposed Amendment to the Third May, 

enlarged and liberal hearts of His renewed people : — His constitu- 
tion the scriptural, local, and independent Christian church. The 
man who should propose to make himself stronger by taking the 
bones from the interior of his own bodily frame-work, where the 
Creator hid them, and by quilting them for his better protection in- 
to the corslet he wears about and without him, would be no unapt 
image of the church conservators, who have in all ages put their 
artificial safeguards for the church, rather in the outward and in- 
vented framework, the changeful and perishable habiliments of hu- 
man creeds and constitutions, in the wisdom of the fathers and the 
decrees of synods, than in the inward and hidden life of a prayer- 
ful church, and the spirituality of renewed disciples, regenerate and 
holy men, taught of the Spirit of God, inhabited by the Spirit, and 
therefore obeying that spirit in the scriptures and loving that same 
spirit in their fellow-disciples, sharers of the same regeneration, and 
therefore like minded with them. The church is not only essential- 
ly missionary, but each Christian, really such, is inevitably more or 
less a missionary. If not in other ways, he is in this. He emits 
moral light, and transmits and reflects holiness. As light in its own 
nature expels darkness, and as life from the necessity of its being 
protests against and repels death, so truth in the Christian's heart 
is necessarily aggressive against error and sin. The mode and 
sphere of his missionary toils — the extent to which the rays of his 
missionary influence travel — it is for the individual conscience, en- 
lightened by the Scripture, Spirit and Providence of God, to deter- 
mine. And as, in the parable of the wounded traveller on the way 
to Jericho, we see the priest and the Levite, the representatives of 
corporations and ecclesiastical classes, passing the wretched vic- 
tim unrelieved, whilst the good Samaritan, the representative of no 
class, but acting individually and for himself alone, notices and re- 
stores the dying, so now, when ecclesiastical organizations, proper- 
ly so called, may be overlooking their brotherly duty to the heathen 
and their filial duty to God, voluntary and individual charity may 
come in to supply their lack of service. 

The day that should make the membership of our missionary so- 
cieties, strictly and fully, representatives of the churches, sitting as 
their legislators and their assessors, enacting the statute and levying 
the contingent of taxation, would be a day of gloom for the churches 
at home and for our missionary colonies abroad. In sacrificing the 
independence of the churches and the spontaneity of the alms, it 
would choke the prayers and cripple the enterprise of the churches. 
More light — more alms — more men — more prayer — ask for them all. 
Ask them in the name of our God, in the light of the judgment- 
seat and of the cross, by the blazing Tophet, and by the glistening 
Mount Zion — entreat — aye, demand them. Let the churches by their 
pastor and by the missionary agent be agitated, until they be, through 
all their membership, sensible of their duties; but let them remain 
churches still, instead of sinking them into segments of a great and 
controlling organization, that should fail to respect the integrity and 
independence of Christ's framework the local and self-governed 

Thus far your Committee have labored to bring the scattered rays 

1848.] Article of the Constitutio7i. 125 

of scripture, in its intimations and examples, to bear on the compli- 
cated question of the relations that should subsist between the inde- 
pendent church, and the voluntary societies of modern Christian en- 
terprise. If these views be just, they bear alike on some of the 
arguments adduced by the friends, and some urged by the opponents 
of the proposed amendment. 

IV. Having thus reviewed the considerations urged on either 
hand and the aspect of the scripture in its bearings on the topic, it 
remains for your Committee to state the extent to which this feeling 
of anxiety for a change in the terms of membership seems to pervade 
the churches. In the Middle States, and in a considerable portion 
of New England, the great majority of the churches probably prefer, 
for the present at least, the retention unchanged of the existing 
basis. In Connecticut, in Maine, and in Michigan, in portions of 
Ohio and of Western New York, there are large numbers who 
would probably prefer to an exclusive life membership, an annual 
membership either in part or in whole. The Connecticut State 
Convention passed a resolution favoring an annual membership at 
the rate of fifty dollars. In Ohio, we are told, at least three Asso- 
ciations have voted in favor of a change, one of these at least to 
the exclusion of all life membership, the others but desiring the 
equal admission of anjiual members. The Ohio State Convention 
has adopted a resolution for representation in our missionary work. 
The Michigan State Convention with but a single vote in the nega- 
tive, resolved that the best interests of Foreign Missions demand 
the admission of annual membership. At a meeting in LeRoy, 
Western New York, on the 26th ult., which transmitted its proceed- 
ings to this Committee, several valued brethren voted desiring a 
change that should admit annual membership on payment of $50, 
and desiring the incorporation of the representative principle into 
the Union, but expressing the belief that contributors, and not churches 
as such, should be represented. Now such representation the Con- 
stitution already has from individuals, in the life membership. But 
the representation generally desired by those favoring a change is 
the opposite of this, a representation of churches as such. Those 
thus desirous of a change are, then, not at all agreed, as to the 
amount of amendment to be demanded in the present organization. 
Some wish but a recognition of annual members on the same pay- 
ment as for life members. Others, and these the most in number, 
desire a lower rate for annual membership. Some would insist on 
the entire abolition of the principle of life membership. This in- 
volves an entire revolution in the existing system, that might bring 
chaotic anarchy, and must inevitably disaffect more of the tried and 
attached friends of the Union than it could possibly win back of 
those now wavering or distrustful in their relations to our body. 
These life members are now 1383, and more than one half of them 
were made such by churches, associations, conventions and mis- 
sionary societies. This shows the feelings of those churches and 
conventions to some extent, and should not be disregarded in esti- 
mating the amount of desire for or against any change. 

Another element to be regarded in the disposal now to be made 
of the pending amendment, is the fact, that a change has taken place 

126 Proposed A^nendment to the Third [May, 

in the minds of some originally favoring a change. In your own 
Committee are some, who either for themselves, or merely in the 
wish to conciliate valuable brethren of a different judgment from 
their own, favored at first the admission of annual mtmbership; 
but who, seeing (he views of representation which some annex to 
such amendment, are now disinclined to vote for any present altera- 
tion of the Constitution. One indication of a change in feeling ap- 
pears in the contradictory senses which some of our friends who 
unite in asking representation are giving to the word they employ, 
as we have seen in the case quoted from Western New York. 
Representation in the beginning meant, it was generally supposed, 
the represenfation of the churches, though how far it went in legis- 
lating for and taxing them, was not generally discussed. Now it 
appears, some using the word intend by it but the appointment by 
individuals, and not by churches as such, of delegates. A modifica- 
tion of views has taken place. The extent to which it has already 
proceeded, whether it has reached its last limits, or is likely to pro- 
ceed yet further, your Committee are unable to learn. They deem 
your own body at this session better qualified than they can them- 
selves be, to judge how far such change has spread, and how much 
farther it may be expected to spread, and whether another year of 
delay and discussion would or would not avail to supersede the ne- 
cessity of an early and radical alteration in our existing system. 

Your Committee have their individual judgments and preferences. 
Some, and this the larger number in the Committee, would for 
themselves desire no change so early and so radical. Yet if others 
truly loving the cause would be by such change propitiated, (whilst 
no danger should be incurred of disaffecting the present and fast 
friends of the Union,) this portion of the Committee would sa,crifice 
most gladly their own preferences to secure harmony and fraternal 
co-operation. Others of your Committee prefer a change admitting 
annual membership, but they would cheerfully renounce their own 
preferences to the general wishes, and to secure the co-operation of 
the largest ()ossible number of our brethren. All are agreed in pro- 
testing against the principle of representation in the strict and pop- 
ular use of that term, and they would admit no change that should 
not specifically and solemnly disavow the rights of a missionary so- 
ciety to construe and develope itself into a legislative confederacy 
of our churches. Such missionary society has not episcopal super- 
vision even over our missionary churches. Its Board of Managers 
are not the senators, nor its Secretaries the dictators of our sister 
churches, the colonies but not the vassals of the Baptist churches 
of this country, planted by them on eastern shores. 

V. Your Committee would now terminate the protracted, but 
necessarily protracted because complicv^.ted, '^ investigation" re- 
quired of them. They close with an inquiry and a suggestion. 

For themselves they are not prepared to urge the amendment, 
though a minority of their number prefer it. But they all deem it 
essential to a wise and intelligent decision, that your body inquire 
(and this they may now and here do,) more fully than your Com- 
mittee found themselves able to do, how far the feeling in our 
churches, favorable to an amendment engrafting annual member- 

1848.] Article of the Constitution. 127 

ship upon the existing Constitution, is on the ebb or is in course of 
increase. If further discussion and fuller reflection have shaken 
the first preferences of many for annual membership, and are likely 
to recal from such preferences many more who as yet favor it, your 
Committee would, on your ascertaining such change and prospect 
of yet further change, in the feelings of those who have sought al- 
teration on the missionary platform, recommend still further con- 
sideration and delay. A postponement cannot risk as much as 
would a rash and unconsidered amendment. 

Your committee have also a suggestion. If your Board should, 
on such inquiry, deem the state of feeling on the part of numerous 
and honest friends of Missions in the churches, to require the ad- 
mission of the element of annual membership, your Committee 
would recommend that the amendment proposed be so varied, that, 
" On the payment of not less than fifty dollars, any church, or reli- 
gious body, or individual, shall be allowed to appoint an Jinnual Mem- 
ber, who shall enjoy for the year all the privileges of a Life Member." 
They further suggest, that if the Union incorporate the proposed 
amendment into the Constitution, they do also distinctly disavow the 
principle of representation, in the popular and full sense of that 
term. In our ecclesiastical relations, delegations from churches are 
scriptural and useful. They are essential to our church fellowship. 
But in our voluntary societies, the representation of churches is an 
unsafe principle. Such representatives have usurped the right of 
ecclesiastical legislation. The history of the churches has con- 
demned it, and the providence of God is in history. If this unten- 
able theory of church representation underlies the demand for a 
change, (which your Committee do not assert,) then more will be 
lost than can be gained by its admission into the platform of your 
body. If brethren, true and warm friends of Missions, insist on 
such representation, and not satisfied with the amendment above 
conditionally proposed, decline, in case of a refusal to adopt full and 
uncontrolled representation, further co-operation with your body, 
your Committee believe it the cordial and unfeigned wish of all our 
churches, that brethren, on that or other account, differing and di- 
vided from us in all parts of the field, may have the blessing of our 
common Master, far as they seek the true end of missionary organi- 
zation. Our common task in every such organization, should be to 
uproot error and sin from our misguided and guilty world. As other 
and kindred organizations do this, your body will and must rejoice 
that so much of our common work is done, and so much of our 
common wish accomplished. There is land enough to be possessed 
by every band of missionary laborers. The success of others will 
be that, not of ri/als so much as fellow-helpers, and shall have our 
hearty sympathy. If the Master be served, it is enough for us. 
Hearing the same summons, pleading the same promises, guided and 
sealed by the same Spirit, bought by the same ransom, plucked from 
a common perdition, and speeding to a common home on high, 
brethren by the Master's redemption, and brethren in the Master's 
prophecies, why should we contend by the way.^ Let each walk by 
the measure of light he has received, and let none of us think that 
the Elder Brother is honored, or his younger and weaker brethren 


Proposed Amendment. 


edified by our wrangling in the dark, and that over the body of the 
neglected heathen. " Whereto we have already attained, let us 
walk by the same rule; let us mind the same things: and if in any 
thing we be variously minded, God shall reveal even this unto us." 
(Phil, iii.) Let us rejoice that fuller and clearer light is on its way; 
and let us walk and talk together as brethren expecting one day to 
bask in the fullest radiance of that light, where Christ is fully 
known, and where His people are, all and altogether, Christ-like. 

William R. Williams, 
Morgan J. Rhees, 
Elisha Tucker, 
James H. Duncan, 
Adam Wilson, 
Greenleaf S. W^ebb, 
John Stevens, 
Pharcellus Church, 
John Booth.* 

\ Committee. 

Troy, May, 1848. 

*Rev. J. Booth, of Michigan, was unable to attend the meetings of the Committee or 
Union, but from correspondence with him, is supposed to unite in this action of the Com-